During the sampling INCB024360 cell line period, the full-scale composting plant was operating under sub-optimal conditions; the temperature and pH rose slowly to the levels typical for thermophilic composting. The pilot-scale compost unit, in contrast, was operating under optimal conditions and the composting process progressed well. The temperature in the
pilot-scale compost rose quickly to the thermophilic stage. Within two days after feeding waste into the feeding end of the drum, the average temperature exceeded 50°C, while in the full-scale composting unit the thermophilic phase was reached only temporarily in the unloading end of the drum 3-4 days after feeding (average 45°C) and more consistently in the tunnel compartment (50-70°C), 4-7 days after feeding. Also the pH rose faster and to a higher level in the pilot-scale composting unit than in the full-scale composting plant (Table 1). In addition, the bulk density (g/l) was found to change IWR 1 during the processes (Table 1). 16S ribosomal RNA libraries For analysis of bacterial population diversity, 16S rRNA genes were amplified from the total DNA extracted
from compost samples. From the cloned fragment 1560 almost full-length 16S rRNA sequences were generated; 924 sequences from the pilot-scale unit and 636 from the full-scale composting plant. The suspected chimeric sequences (23) were removed before further analyses. Diversity of bacteria Of the 1560 sequences generated, a total of 522 OTUs unique to either the pilot or full-scale
facility were found with 99% sequence similarity clustering. A total of 267 sequences were found in samples from the full-scale composting plants and SPTLC1 275 sequences were present in the pilot-scale compost. Surprisingly, only 20 sequenced OTUs were found in both composting units. Also at the species level only a small fraction of the OTUs were shared. Out of 210 species found in the full-scale unit and 166 in the pilot-scale unit, only 32 were present in both. On the genus level the portion of shared sequences was Sepantronium larger. Out of 27 genera in the full-scale unit, and 41 in the pilot-scale unit, 18 were present in both. The sequences belonged to five bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus) based on a phylogenetic analysis. Despite the large difference in the distribution of bacterial sequences, most bacterial phyla observed were found in both composting units (Figure 2, Figure 3). Since sequences representing the Firmicutes were by far the largest group, this phylum was further divided into the classes Bacillales, Clostridia and Lactobacillales in order to study the community composition (Figure 2). Figure 2 Bacterial sequence clustering. Composition of bacterial communities in a) the full-scale process and b) in the pilot-scale process at different composting stages. Similarity of > 99% was used.