Meanwhile, the atomic percentage content of titanium in the tooth

Meanwhile, the atomic percentage content of titanium in the tooth shape particles is 12.14%; it is almost consistent with the experimental process in which the molar ratio of titanium and zinc is 1 to 10. It manifests that titanium is almost utterly doped in the ZnO. The crystalline characters of the samples are checked by selected area electron diffraction. Figure 5(a3) shows that samples synthesized from zinc acetate have certain crystalline state, and the crystalline grain size is slightly larger. The (101), (102), and (112) crystal Z-VAD-FMK manufacturer faces are detected. This is consistent with the XRD. When the raw material is zinc sulfate, the diffraction pattern displays the ( 10)

lattice plane of Zn (SO4)2 · 3Zn (OH)2 and (101), (102), and (201) lattice

planes of ZnO (Figure 5(b2)). The result is consistent with the XRD. When the raw material is zinc nitrate, (101), (102), and (201) crystal planes of ZnO are detected, and the diffraction rings are obscure (Figure 5(c3)). It demonstrates that the samples are composed of amorphous and crystalline forms. The SAED pattern of the samples prepared from zinc chloride displays the (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (201) crystal planes of ZnO (Figure 5(d3)). It indicates that the samples are hexagonal phase. Besides, there are some scattered bright spots in the diffraction pattern. It demonstrates that the grain size is slightly larger. Antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO powders Tables 1 and 2 both show that the antibacterial MCC950 activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from S3I-201 different zinc salts is different. The antibacterial activities of the powders are optimal, which is prepared from zinc chloride, and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the powders synthesized from zinc nitrate are slightly

poorer than that of zinc chloride and are better than that of zinc acetate and zinc sulfate. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activities of the powders against E. coli are better than S. aureus. Table 1 Colony count of E. coli after antibacterial activities by titanium-doped ZnO powders Zinc salt Powder concentration (g/L) 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Zn (Ac)2 1.25 × 108 2.1 × 107 1.95 × 107 1.75 × 107 1.2 × 107 3.85 × 106 aminophylline 2.9 × 103 1.65 × 103 ZnSO4 1.1 × 107 9.75 × 106 5.3 × 106 2.95 × 105 5.6 × 104 1.6 × 104 7.65 × 103 Zn (NO3)2 2.15 × 107 1.9 × 107 1.65 × 107 1.6 × 107 3.35 × 105 2.8 × 103 0 ZnCl2   3.05 × 104 6.55 × 103 3.9 × 103 2.5 × 103 2.3 × 103 2.0 × 103 0 The initial bacterial colony count is 8.75 × 105 CFU/mL. Table 2 Colony count of S. aureus after antibacterial activities by titanium-doped ZnO powders Zinc salt Powder concentration (g/L) 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Zn (Ac)2 1.95 × 108 5.25 × 107 5.2 × 107 4.0 × 107 3.4 × 107 3.0 × 107 4.15 × 105 2.1 × 103 ZnSO4 8.85 × 107 8.

Amino Acids 2007,32(3):381–6 CrossRefPubMed 3 Stout JR, Graves B

Amino Acids 2007,32(3):381–6.CrossRefPubMed 3. Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, Harris RC:

The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55–92 Years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008, 5:21.CrossRefPubMed 4. Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA: Influence of b-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007, 32:225–233.CrossRefPubMed 5. Zoeller RF, Stout JR, O’Kroy JO, TOrok D, Mielke M: Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine Mizoribine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino Acids 2007,33(3):505–10.CrossRefPubMed

6. Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J: Effect of Creatine & β-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J of Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006, 4:430–6. 7. Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E: Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007,103(5):1736–43.CrossRefPubMed 8. Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, Bui TT, Smith M, Wise JA: The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production,

muscular endurance selleck products and body composition. Amino Acids 2008,34(4):547–554.CrossRefPubMed 9. Van Thienen R, Van Proeyen K, Eynde B, Puype J, Lefere T, Hespel P: Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009,41(4):898–903.CrossRefPubMed 10. Smith A, selleck compound Walter A, Graef J, Kendall K, Moon J, Lockwood C, Fukuda D, Beck T, Cramer J, Stout J: Effects of β-Alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009, 11:65–68. 11. Abe H: Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents Bacterial neuraminidase in vertebrate muscle. Biochemistry (Mosc) 65:757–65. 12. Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied β-Alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006, 30:279–289.CrossRefPubMed 13. Bakardjiev A, Bauer K: Transport of β-Alanine and biosynthesis of carnosine by skeletal muscle cells in primary culture. Eur J Biochem 1994, 225:617–23.CrossRefPubMed 14. Dunnett M, Harris RC: Influence of oral Beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet J 1999, 30:499–504. 15. Robergs RA, Ghiasvand F, Parker D: Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis.

Spectroscopic methods OD (660 nm) and PM levels (880 nm) were mea

Spectroscopic methods OD (660 nm) and PM levels (880 nm) were measured using a 1 cm path length cuvette and a UV/Vis spectrophotometer (V-560, Jasco, Tokyo, Japan). The PM level was estimated using the A880/A660 ratio. An A880/A660 ratio of approximately 1.2 is characteristic of maximal PM levels, obtained in anaerobic phototrophic cells grown at low levels of light intensity. An A880/A660 ratio of approximately 0.54 is indicative of a lack of PM formation, JQ-EZ-05 datasheet and occurs in aerobic cultivation Luminespib conditions [4]. ΔPM refers to the amount of PM produced during a

specific growth period. Culture supernatants were analyzed for levels of bacteriochlorophyll a precursors by fluorescence spectroscopy using a Varian fluorescence spectrophotometer of the type Cary Eclipse (Cary Eclipse, Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Tetrapyrolle compounds produced in growth cultures were identified Combretastatin A4 cell line as described previously [11]. For quantification of both compounds, the emission spectra of culture supernatants were evaluated at their maximum emission (FImax). Protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) showed a FImax at 614 nm when excited at 390 nm, whereas magnesium-protoporphyrine-IX-monomethylesther (Mg-PPIX-mme) showed a FImax at 595 nm when excited at 420 nm. Purification and quantification of AHL extracts

Culture supernatants were extracted with dichloromethane in a ratio of 7:3 (v/v). After evaporation of the solvent, the dried AHL residue was resuspended in selleckchem 100% (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN) at 1/100 of the origin volume. In preparation for analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the samples were filtered (0.2 μm, GHP, Minispike Acrodisc® Syringe Filters, Pall Life Sciences, New York, USA) to remove particulate matter. The samples were processed on a HPLC from Agilent (1100 series, Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany) consisting of quaternary pump, autosampler, DAD-detector and the matching LC/MSD detector or a 1200 series sample collector. The LC/MSD (1100 series, Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany) was used with either an APCI-ion source or ESI. The Inertsil ODS-3 column was 4.6 x 250 mm, with a 5 μ particle size (Inertsil 100A ODS-3, VDS

Optilab, Berlin, Germany). The eluent gradient was from ACN:H2O; (10:90; v/v) to ACN:H2O (90:10; v/v) over 15 min. For restoring the original concentrations between samples, a 5 min flow interval, followed by 3 additional minutes for equilibration was used. For sensitive analysis, the flow rate was 1 mL min-1. For semi-preparative applications involving a larger column (10 x 250 mm), the flow rate was adjusted to 3 mL min-1. Screen for AHL bioactivity Autoinducer bioassays [18] were performed employing A. tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4) as indicator strain. The overlay culture was prepared as described previously [19]. An appropriate amount of AHL extracts was spotted on glass microfibre filters (90 mm Ø, Cat No 1822–090, Whatman, GE Healthcare UK limited, Little Chalfont, UK) which were then placed into a Petri dish.

The incidence and mortality rate of lung cancer in China urban po

The incidence and mortality rate of lung FHPI solubility dmso cancer in China urban populations have reached the number one among malignant tumors. Although the incidence and death rate of lung cancer is now declining in men, the incidence and death rate in women continues to increase. So in this sense it is more important to study the impact factors of lung cancer in female population. Adenocarcinoma accounts

for about 40% of all lung cancer, with a higher incidence in women. It is the most frequent subtype occurring in those who have never smoked. The epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of lung cancer in nonsmokers are not clear. As we know, many lung cancer patients didn’t have the history of smoking and a lot of smokers didn’t AZD1152 mouse develop lung cancer [1], suggesting that host susceptibility factors may play an important role in this disease. Recent genetic Selleck CHIR98014 susceptibility studies of cancer have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, among which DNA repair

genes are increasingly studied because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity. Excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 and group 2 (ERCC1 and ERCC2) are the important DNA repair genes, playing critical roles in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which is the most important system to repair a wide variety of structurally DNA lesions, including bulky adducts, cross-links [2], oxidative DNA damage, thymidine dimmers [3]and alkylating damage [4]. The two genes are all located in chromosome 19q13.2-13.3. ERCC2 codes for an evolutionarily conserved helicase, a subunit of TFIIH complex which is essential for transcription and NER. ERCC1 protein is responsible for recognition of DNA damage and removal of the damaged nucleotides in NER. SNPs in exons of DNA repair genes may influence their protein activity, resulting in differences of individual NER and

selleck chemical DNA repair capacity (DRC) that may affect the susceptibility of lung cancer. So we selected the common SNPs in exons of ERCC2 and ERCC1 gene and with the frequency of heterozygosity >5% in the present study. The common polymorphism of ERCC1 gene is at codon 118 (C > T substitution at exon 4, without amino acid change–Asn/Asn, rs11615). The common polymorphisms of ERCC2 gene is at codon 751 (A > C substitution at nucleotide position 35931, exon 23, Lys>Gln, rs13181) and codon 312 (G >A substitution at position 23951, exon 10, Asp>Asn, rs1799793). The polymorphisms at codon 312 and 751 have been studied extensively for their potential implication in cancer risk. The effect of the ERCC2 and ERCC1 polymorphisms, and also of the haplotypes encompassing these two genes, on susceptibility of lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking females has not been reported so far.

A 4 7-kb EcoRI/XhoI fragment of this plasmid

was subclone

A 4.7-kb EcoRI/XhoI fragment of this plasmid

was subcloned into pRSM2072, which utilizes lacZ as a counter-selectable marker to facilitate allelic exchange [42]. The resulting plasmid was electroporated into strain 35000HP. Selection was performed on plates containing kanamycin (30 μg/mL). Colonies were then picked and grown on plates containing X-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) and kanamycin. Cointegrates appeared as small blue colonies Selleckchem CUDC-907 because the growth of 35000HP containing lacZ is suppressed in the presence of X-Gal [42]. lacZ-deficient colonies in which a second crossover event had occurred appeared as white, larger colonies. An ompP4 mutant was recovered and designated 35000HPompP4. Construction

SGC-CBP30 in vitro of the mutant was confirmed using PCR amplification and Southern blotting. PCR amplification of the ompP4 ORFs of 35000HPompP4 and 35000HP was performed using primers (5’-TGTACTTATCATCATAATCATAAGCAT-3’ and 5’-TTTGTTAGGATTAACTCGTTATTCA-3’) specific to the intergenic regions flanking ompP4, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. For Southern blot analysis, H. ducreyi DNA was digested to completion with PstI, electrophoresed on 0.8% agarose gels and probed with either the cloned ompP4 insert or the kan cassette. LOS and OMPs were purified from 35000HP and 35000HPompP4 and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as described [9]. The growth rates of parent and mutant in broth used to prepare the challenge inocula were also compared. Human inoculation protocol Stocks of 35000HP and 35000HPompP4 were prepared according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines (BB-IND 13046). For the human inoculation protocol, healthy adult male and female volunteers over 21 years of age were recruited for the study. Subjects gave informed consent for participation and for human

immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Cilengitide order serology, in accordance with the human Y-27632 mw experimentation guidelines of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the institutional ethics committee of Indiana University-Purdue University of Indianapolis. The experimental protocol, preparation and inoculation of the bacteria, calculation of the EDD, and clinical observations were all done exactly as described previously [12, 43]. Subjects were observed until they reached clinical endpoint, which was defined as resolution of all sites, development of a pustule that was either painful or > 4 mm in diameter, or 14 days after inoculation. Subjects were then treated with one dose of oral ciprofloxacin as described [44]. Comparison of papule and pustule formation rates for the two strains was performed using a logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for the correlation among sites within the same individual, as previously described [43].

13 based on the treatment-by-study interaction term in the Poisso

13 based on the treatment-by-study interaction term in the Poisson regression model. The estimated relative risk for AF SAEs was 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.93; p = 0.33, Fig. 1B) and was similar to the estimated odds ratio for all serious events of 1.24 (95% CI = 0.87, 1.87; p = 0.29; Table 2).

There were 55 participants with one or more AF SAEs for alendronate occurring in six JQ1 cost trials compared with 41 events for placebo occurring in eight trials. Twenty-two trials (68.8%) did not have any AF SAEs. Results for atrial fibrillation without including atrial flutter were similar (data not shown). Sensitivity analysis The stability of the estimates for all events and for SAEs was evaluated by conducting exact Poisson regression meta-analyses with each study eliminated one at a time. The order of magnitude of the relative risk for all events

of AF changed very little as each study was eliminated, although the 95% confidence interval became wider when the large GSK2245840 in vivo clinical fracture cohort of FIT, study 51.2, was eliminated (Fig. 2A). Fig. 2 Relative risk (RR) of all events (A) or serious events (B) of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter cross-validation by eliminating one study at a time. For example, the first RR represents all trials except study 26, etc. Study 51.1 is the vertebral fracture cohort of FIT, and study 51.2 is the clinical fracture cohort of FIT The two cohorts for FIT, which represent 34% of the participants taking alendronate and 41% of Linsitinib molecular weight the participants taking placebo, experienced 87.3% of the AF SAEs for alendronate and 78.0% of the AF SAEs for placebo. The relative risk of AF SAEs including all studies was 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.93), but became Dichloromethane dehalogenase 0.97 (95% CI = 0.51, 1.85) when the clinical fracture cohort of FIT, study 51.2, was excluded (Fig. 2B), indicating that the results for serious

events were driven by the AF SAEs in that FIT cohort [RR 1.56 (95% CI = 0.86, 2.89) for AF SAEs in the clinical fracture cohort]. In the vertebral fracture cohort (study 51.1), the relative risk of AF SAEs was 1.37 (95% CI = 0.62, 3.15), but this cohort had a smaller contribution to the overall results because it represented approximately one third of the patient years of the clinical fracture cohort. Figure 3 summarizes the relative risk of AF and serious events of AF within the pre-specified subgroups. Both cohorts for FIT are included in the >65 group for age, length of study >1 year, and pivotal studies of osteoporosis. The clinical fracture cohort of FIT is not included in the elderly participants group because the average age was less than 70 years old (mean age 61 years). The results of the clinical fracture cohort of FIT overwhelm the results of the other studies to the extent that the subgroup analyses reflect the presence or absence of that cohort in the subgroup. Fig.

, Kansas City, USA) attached to a triple-V digital volume transdu

, Kansas City, USA) attached to a triple-V digital volume transducer. Respiratory data was recorded throughout exercise using a Metalyzer 3B system online automated gas-analyser in conjunction with Metasoft version 3 software (Cortex Biophysik, Leipzig, Germany). Heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously via radio-telemetry (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland). Apoptosis antagonist Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected

in the final minute of each stage, using the Borg 6–20 subjective exertion scale [30]. The test concluded when participants reached volitional exhaustion or were unable to maintain the required power output. Maximal power was calculated by adding the final completed workload to the fraction of time spent in the non-completed workload, multiplied by 30 W. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was defined as maximal when two of the following criteria were met: 1) a levelling off of VO2 with increasing workload (increase of no Seliciclib chemical structure more than 2 ml · kgˉ1 · minˉ1); 2) attainment of maximal predicted heart rate (±10 beats.min-1); and 3) a respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of >1.05. The highest attained

VO2, maintained for 20 seconds, was determined to be the VO2max. Participants also undertook a separate habituation trial for both steady state and performance conditions. The characteristics of the participants are shown in Table 1. Table 1 Summary of participant characteristics and pre-experimental data collection Age (years) Height (m) Weight (kg) VO2max (L.min-1) VO2max ( Wmax (watts) 50% Wmax (watts) 31.79 ± 10.02 1.79 ± 0.06 73.69 ± 9.24 4.40 ± 0.56 60.38 ± 9.36 352.64 ± 52.39 176.71 ± 25.92 Table 1 shows the key characteristics of all participants, including data for maximal power output from pre-experimental assessment. Values are presented as mean ± SD; n = 14; VO2max, maximal oxygen uptake; Wmax, maximal power output. Experimental click here trials All experimental Immune system trials were undertaken in the Human Physiology Laboratory, Division of Sport, Health

and Exercise, University of Hertfordshire under controlled conditions (temperature: 22.4 ± 0.9°C; barometric pressure – range: 979–1023 mBar; and relative humidity – range: 21–56%). No differences were reported between trials (P > 0.05) for any of the environmental variables. The study employed a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross over design for beverage condition. Participants were required to perform three exercise trials separated by one week, each comprising a 2.5 hour cycle at 50% Wmax (oxidation trial), followed by a 60 km cycling test (performance trial). Trials were undertaken at the same time of day to minimise the potential for diurnal variance. Participants reported to the laboratory following a 12 hour overnight fast. Upon arrival, nude body mass was measured and participants rested for 5 minutes before baseline measurements (for expired air and blood analytes) were undertaken.

The endophyte was inoculated in Czapek broth (1% peptone, 1% gluc

The endophyte was inoculated in Czapek broth (1% peptone, 1% glucose, 0.001% FeSO4.7H2O, Tariquidar 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05% KCl; pH 7.3 ± 0.2) and incubated for 10 days at 28°C under shaking (150 rpm) conditions to undertake further experiments [17, 18]. C.

annuum growth with endophyte The C. annuum seeds were sterilized with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min, and rinsed with autoclaved DW. Seeds were incubated in darkness for 24 h to obtain equally germination. The pre-germinated seeds were cultivated in autoclaved pots (121°C for 15 min; two times; 10 × 5 cm) with substrate (peat: perlite: vermiculite – 1:1:1 by volume). The endophyte was cultured in Czapek broth containing conidia (20 ml with 25 propagules/pot) and added to substrate as described previsouly [16–18]. The control Pim inhibitor plants only received 20 ml/pot of endophyte-free Czapek broth. Thus, pre-germinated pepper seeds and endophyte were grown

together for three weeks in the growth chamber (day/night cycle: 14 h; 28°C/10 h; 25°C; relative humidity 60–70%; light intensity 1000 μEm-2-s Natrium lamps) irrigated with distilled water. Drought stress, endophyte association and SA treatments The experiment was conducted with a completely randomized block design. Salicylic acid (SA-10-6 M) was exogenously applied to pepper plants. The treatments SYN-117 solubility dmso included (i) control, (ii) control plants under drought stress, (iii) plants with endophyte (EA), (iv) EA plants under stress, (v) SA-treated plants, (vi) SA-treated plants under stress, (vii) SA and endophyte-infected plants and (viii) SA and endophyte-associated plants under stress (SA+EA). Each treatment contained 18 plants and the experiment was repeated three times. Drought stress was initiated by exposing plants to 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG 10,000 MW; -3.02 MPa osmotic potential) for 2, 4 and 8 days. The growth parameters i.e. shoot length and fresh weights were measured at harvest while chlorophyll content of leaves was measured by chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 Minolta, Japan). All PtdIns(3,4)P2 readings were taken in triplicate. The effect on the plant biomass was measured after endophyte and SA treatments

under different stress regimes [18]. The biomass gained/lost in endophyte-inoculated and non-inoculated plants were compared by using this formula: DW is the dry weight while E+ and E- are plants with or without endophyte infestation respectively. Determination of electrolytic leakage Electrolytic leakage was determined according to the method of Liu et al. [20]. Briefly, fresh leaf samples (200 mg) were cut into 5 mm small pieces length and placed in test tubes containing 10 ml DW. The preliminary electrical conductivity (EC1) was measured after the tubes were kept in water bath at 25°C for one hour. The samples were autoclaved at 121°C for 20 min to completely kill the tissues and release all electrolytes from leaf tissues. When the samples were cooled down to 25°C, final electrical conductivity (EC2) was measured.

The effector can determine the drop of the living biomass (X) due

The effector can determine the drop of the living biomass (X) due to cell death, or the drop of the maximum specific growth rate (r). In both cases we admit that the response R can be described by means of model A1 (see Appendix and Table 1 for parametric definitions and units), where the subindex φ can take the values X and r according to the specific response considered: (1) A2. In accordance with the usual convention of a total biomass X, when X H dies at a given dose of the effector (X S being

the surviving biomass), the response R X in terms of biomass will be: (2) A3. Similarly, GSK872 clinical trial if the response R r in terms of the maximum specific rate is a decrease from r 0 to r in the absence of the effector, we will have: (3) The adequate formulations for an effector with stimulatory action (response with negative sign, see methodological section) are obtained in a similar way. Since the increase in cell number can only be attributed to the (-)R r response, the meaning of the (-)R X response is the increase of dry weight per cell. Thus, when biomass is estimated by means of absorbances or number of colony forming units, it is only pertinent to consider the response in terms of maximum specific rate. A4. Bearing in mind the preceding specification, if a total

biomass X increases up to a value X S (where X S = X +ΔX) at a given dose of effector, the response will be: (4) A5. Similarly, if the response R r of the maximum specific rate is the increase to a value r from a value r 0 in the absence of the effector (with r = r 0 + Δr), we will have: (5) B. Hypothesis concerning biomass dynamics We accept that the biomass X grows according to a conventional logistic equation, whose differential expression is [18]: (6) where r 0 is the maximum specific growth rate in the absence of the effector, and X m is the maximum biomass. In the presence of the effector, the constant r 0 turns into the variable r (which is dependent on the dose); therefore, this differential form cannot allow an analytic solution. Therefore, next the expression (6) will be directly used later on in the numeric solution of the system. C. Optional

hypothesis concerning the dose The dose D is commonly considered a constant: it is the initial concentration of the effector, which is a good criterion when the biomass does not vary appreciably during the exposure time. However, this approach can be Mizoribine in vivo doubtful if the action of the effector reduces (without cancelling) the growth rate, because in this case the ratio of available effector to biomass diminishes with time. Indeed, it is difficult to accept that in a microbial culture the initial level of effector means the same against the initial biomass as against a biomass often larger by several orders of magnitude a few hours later. In fact, these considerations are implicit when a clearly specified value of the initial biomass is required for standardizing DR assays.

flexneri strains and

flexneri strains and serotype-converting bacteriophages used in this study were listed in Table 2. S. flexneri strain 036 (serotype Y) was Smad inhibitor used as host for phage infection and large propagation. S. flexneri strains 014 (serotype X) and 019 (serotype 1a) were used as positive controls in the serological assays for group specific antigen 7;8 and type specific antigen I respectively. Twenty four S. flexneri serotype X and 17 of S. flexneri serotype 1a strains isolated

from patients and stored at National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC (ICDC) were used for infection with serotype-converting phages SfI and SfX respectively. Table 2 Strains and serotype-converting bacteriophages used in this study Strains or phages Relevant characteristic Reference or source S. flexneri strains 036 Serotype Y ICDC 014 Serotype X ICDC 019 Serotype 1a ICDC 036_1a 036 infected by SfI, serotype 1a This study 036_X 036 infected by SfX, serotype X This study 036_1d 036 infected by SfI and SfX, serotype 1d This study Phages SfI Phage SfI, induced from S. flexneri strain 019 This study SfX Phage SfX, induced from S. flexneri strain 2002017 This study ICDC, National

Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC Serotype-converting bacteriophages SfI and SfX were induced from S. flexneri serotype 1a strain 019 and serotype Xv strain 2002017 respectively, following the methods described by Mavris et al. [12]. Phage infection and lysogen isolation We used the procedures described for lambda phage (Φλ) for phage infection [22]. S. flexneri cells were inoculated into LB broth and incubated for 3 h at 37°C with aeration. Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4000 rpm and the cell ACY-1215 concentration density was adjusted to 2.0 OD (A595 nm) with MgSO4 buffer (10 mmol/L). A proportion of cells (200 μl) were Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease infected with purified phages with phage to bacterial cell ratio of about 1:1000 and incubated for 20 min at 37°C. The infected cells were mixed

with 3 ml semisolid agar (Luria Broth (LB) with 0.7% agar) and immediately spread on LB solid agar plates. After incubation at 37°C for 20 h, the lysogens were detected from turbid single colonies. Slide agglutination and LPS analysis Serological identification was performed using two commercial slide agglutination serotyping kits: monovalent anti-sera (Denka Seiken, Japan) and monoclonal antibody reagents (Reagensia AB, Sweden) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The new serotype was further confirmed by Western-blot assay. Briefly, LPS was prepared using the method of Hitchcock & Brown [23] and transferred onto a PVDF membrane in a Tris/glycine/methanol buffer. The membrane was blocked with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 5% (w/v) skimmed milk and 0.