We next analysed the effect of bromelain in combination with the

We next analysed the effect of bromelain in combination with the cytokine cocktail. Because cytokine cocktail stimulation resulted in the most mature phenotype and stimulation with bromelain lead to a higher IL-12p70 secretion, we were interested to find out whether an additive or synergistic effect could be detected. We also tested bromelain combined with two modified versions of the cytokine cocktail containing less or no PGE2 as it has been stated that PGE2 is responsible for the lack of IL-12p70 production [17, 18]. The phenotype of the cells revealed that all DC populations

stimulated with a combination of bromelain and the cytokine cocktail (original cocktail, ¼ of PGE2 and without PGE2) had a mature phenotype (Fig. 2), PCI-32765 supplier but the population with the least mature phenotype among these was the group that was stimulated with bromelain and the cytokine cocktail without any PGE2 (Fig. 2). The DC populations stimulated with bromelain in combinations with the cytokine cocktail and the cytokine cocktail with ¼ of PGE2 showed an even more mature phenotype compared with cytokine DC, with the highest CD86, CD80, CD83 and CCR7 surface expression (Fig. 2). Interestingly, a synergistic effect was detected on CD83 and CCR7 surface expression when bromelain was added to the original or modified cytokine

cocktail with ¼ PGE2. We also analysed the migratory potential of the generated DC populations but could not detect any clear differences between the populations learn more (data not shown). Removal of PGE2 from the cytokine cocktail resulted in reduced surface levels for most of the markers analysed compared with the original cytokine cocktail (Fig. 2). When ¼ of PGE2 was included in the cocktail, the surface expression was restored (Fig. 2). We also determined the MFI of these Sinomenine markers (Fig. 2B). All populations expressed comparable amounts of CD40. The density of surface CD38 was highest upon treatment with bromelain alone or in combination with the modified cytokine cocktail without PGE2. Treatment

of the cells with the modified cytokine cocktail without PGE2 resulted in lowest surface expression of HLA-DR, similar to that of immature cells. HLA-DR was highest expressed on DC treated with a combination of bromelain and the cytokine cocktail (Fig. 2B). DC stimulated with a combination of bromelain and the cytokine cocktail did only produce higher amounts of IL-12p70 when PGE2 was completely removed from the cocktail (Fig. 3). However, this DC population had a less mature phenotype (Fig. 2). As expected, immature DC and DC stimulated with the cytokine cocktail alone did not produce considerable amounts of IL-12p70. To analyse the functionality of the generated DC populations, we performed allogeneic MLR to assess the T cell stimulatory capacity. As shown in Fig. 4, immature DC had, as expected, the lowest capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cells.

The degree of enhancement of sCD93 by PMA in culture supernatants

The degree of enhancement of sCD93 by PMA in culture supernatants from neonatal UCBCs was significantly greater than that of normal adult PBCs and enhancement of sCD93 by PMA in the culture supernatants from neonatal UCBCs Wnt inhibitors clinical trials and normal adult PBCs was significantly suppressed by PKC inhibitor. Interestingly, the high concentration of serum sCD93 in neonates was significantly decreased in sera from infants at 1 month after birth. Expression of CD93 on the lymphocyte population of PBCs from infants at 1 month after birth was also significantly decreased, compared with that for neonatal UCBCs. These findings

indicate that CD93 in neonatal UCB has unique properties as an immunological biomarker. “
“Implantation is a major landmark in life. It involves the correct apposition of the embryo in the maternal endometrium. The cellular environment influences placenta development, and direct contact of the fetus with maternal tissues is achieved through decidual cells. At the decidua, and at systemic level, the correct balance of cells potentially acting as antigen-presenting cells and histocompatibility products play a pivotal role in achieving feto–maternal tolerance. Here, we review some of the current issues associated with the interplay between JNK inhibitor in vivo cells and molecules needed

for pregnancy development. “
“Paraneoplastic neurologic diseases (PND) involving immune responses directed toward

intracellular antigens are poorly understood. Here, we examine immunity to the PND antigen Nova2, which is expressed exclusively in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. We hypothesized that ectopic expression of neuronal antigen in the of periphery could incite PND. In our C57BL/6 mouse model, CNS antigen expression limits antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell expansion. Chimera experiments demonstrate that this tolerance is mediated by antigen expression in nonhematopoietic cells. CNS antigen expression does not limit tumor rejection by adoptively transferred transgenic T cells but does limit the generation of a memory population that can be expanded upon secondary challenge in vivo. Despite mediating cancer rejection, adoptively transferred transgenic T cells do not lead to paraneoplastic neuronal targeting. Preliminary experiments suggest an additional requirement for humoral activation to induce CNS autoimmunity. This work provides evidence that the requirements for cancer immunity and neuronal autoimmunity are uncoupled. Since humoral immunity was not required for tumor rejection, B-cell targeting therapy, such as rituximab, may be a rational treatment option for PND that does not hamper tumor immunity.

Thus, it interferes with production of proteasome-dependent MHC-I

Thus, it interferes with production of proteasome-dependent MHC-I ligands [49]. IFN-γ (ImmunoTools) or IFN-λ1 (R&D) in cell culture supernatants were measured

by sandwich ELISA following the manufacturer’s instructions. Human monocyte derived DCs were prepared from HLA-A2 positive donors and left uninfected or infected with HTNV (MOI = 1.5). At day 4 p.i., cells were harvested and co-cultured with a pp65 peptide specific (NLVPMVATV) HLA-A2-restricted human T-cell line, which was kindly provided by Nils Rademacher (Berlin). In a selleck 96-well U-bottom plate, 104 target cells (DCs) per well were incubated with different ratios of effector T cells (pp65 peptide specific HLA-A2-restricted T cells). Co-cultured effector and target cells were incubated with lysates of uninfected or HCMV-infected fibroblasts for 36 h. Effector T cells stimulated with 100 ng/mL phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (Sigma) alone were used as a positive control whereas uninfected or HTNV-infected DCs without T cells were used as a negative control. Subsequently, plates were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 5 min and supernatants were analyzed for IFN-γ by ELISA. Results were expressed as means with standard deviation. Student’s t-test CHIR-99021 was used to determine statistical significance of selected samples. p values below 0.05 (95% confidence)

were considered to be significant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Prism 5 software (GraphPad). We thank T. Kaiser (Deutsches Rheuma-forschungszentrum, Berlin) for assistance in flow cytometry and R. Ulrich (Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems) for providing HTNV N protein-reactive pig serum. We are grateful to C. Priemer, M. Bigalke, and E. Lieske (Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin) for excellent technical assistance. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GraKo 1121 to P.L.) and the Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin

(to P.L.). The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“As splicing Dimethyl sulfoxide was previously found to be important for increasing Friend murine leukemia virus env-mRNA stability and translation, we investigated whether splicing of env-mRNA affected the poly(A) tail length using env expression vectors that yielded unspliced or spliced env-mRNA. Incomplete polyadenylation was detected in a fraction of the unspliced env-mRNA products in an env gene-dependent manner, showing that splicing of Friend murine leukemia virus plays an important role in the efficiency of complete polyadenylation of env-mRNA. These results suggested that the promotion of complete polyadenylation of env-mRNA by splicing might partially explain up-regulation of Env protein expression as a result of splicing.

While the mechanisms that control T  retortaeformis and G  strigo

While the mechanisms that control T. retortaeformis and G. strigosum abundance remain obscure, our findings support the hypothesis of a Th2-mediated antibody and eosinophil clearance of primary infections to the former species but not the latter nematode (47–50). Our recent modelling of the immune response network to T. retortaeformis, based on this study, was consistent

with a Th2-mediated antibody/eosinophil clearance and an IL-4 anti-inflammatory X-396 protection against this nematode (Takar et al., in preparation). However, additional experiments are necessary to confirm these conclusions. In this respect, the evidence that IL-4 can induce Foxp3-expressing Treg and the potential for parasite tolerance (51) raises the question of whether the persistence of G. strigosum in the presence of high IL-4 mucosa expression

involves some tolerance mechanisms activated by the rabbit or whether this is an intrinsic property of the stomach to avoid immuno-pathology. Closely related helminth INCB024360 molecular weight infections of other herbivores such as sheep and cattle have highlighted the less effective immune response to the abomasal parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi and Haemonchus placei, compared to the more efficient response against the intestinal nematodes Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Cooperia spp. Our study is consistent with these general findings, specifically stomach and small intestine PJ34 HCl are distinct environments with different immune properties (52) and colonized by helminths with contrasting life history traits (53,54). Based on these systems, helminths in the stomach/abomasal, such as G. strigosum,

tend to have larger body size, slower development and higher fecundity. They also appear to stimulate an immune response either that is slow to develop or has higher tolerance to infections, or can be more easily immuno-suppressed by the helminth. Helminths in the small intestine, e.g. T. retortaeformis, have the opposite of these life history features, probably as a response to a more effective immune response. The co-evolution of the host immune system and the helminth life history traits in the stomach and small intestine appear to have followed different strategies. Nevertheless, in our rabbit–nematode system, the outcome has been equally successful as these parasites cause persistent chronic infections. In conclusion, we have shown that T. retortaeformis and G. strigosum exhibited different immuno-parasitological characteristics during primary infections of naïve rabbits. These nematodes appear to elicit an unequivocal Th-2-biased immune response.

Clustered protocols use two or three injections at each weekly vi

Clustered protocols use two or three injections at each weekly visit, thus Bioactive Compound Library price reducing the total time required to reach

maintenance dose (usually in 7–8 weeks). Rush desensitization protocols have been also described, but are used less often for aeroallergens than for hymenoptera venoms (see below) in view of the higher rate of systemic reactions, including anaphylaxis [16]. Dose reductions are made for delayed or missed injections, during a symptomatic period (for example during the pollen season) or following large local reactions (≥ 10 cm) and systemic reactions. General health, adverse events, changes in medication and peak expiratory flow are monitored prior to administration of SCIT. An observation period of 1 h after the injection is mandatory, with peak expiratory flow testing prior Selleckchem Ponatinib to discharge. However, severe ‘non-immediate’ reactions can occur up to 24 h after allergen injection. SLIT.  SLIT involves placing the vaccine in solution (drop preparation) or tablet

form under the tongue for 1–2 min followed by swallowing. Patient selection for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is identical to that for SCIT. The safety profile of SLIT is superior to SCIT, and serious side effects such as anaphylaxis have been extremely rare [17–23]. Many patients develop minor discomfort in the early phase of treatment, including oropharyngeal pruritis and angioedema, which may require treatment with an antihistamine, but these symptoms usually settle with continued administration of the vaccine. The indications, contraindications and general considerations in administration of

SLIT are the same as described under SCIT. However, there are some special considerations listed as follows. One particular preparation (Grazax; ALK Abello, Denmark) currently licensed in the United Kingdom contains fish gelatin. It may be used cautiously in patients with a history of fish allergy, but is absolutely contraindicated in patients with history of anaphylaxis to fish. Dosage and regimens.  Sublingual immunotherapy has been used for Morin Hydrate several aeroallergens including pollens, house dust mite and cat. The optimum dosage, duration and frequency of administration have not yet been established. Sublingual immunotherapy involves a much higher dose of allergen than SCIT. The cumulative monthly dosage of SLIT used in clinical studies has been variable, but has been 0·6–500 times greater than customary SCIT [18]. Several dosing regimens have been employed, including daily (fixed or incremental dosing) [24–26], three times per week [27] and weekly [28]. With seasonal allergens such as pollen, treatment has been given preseasonally, co-seasonally, pre- and co-seasonally and perennially. Prolonged preseasonal administration induces greater clinical benefit, and if treatment is continued perennially, clinical and immunological responses improve in subsequent years of treatment [29,30].

The presence of a high titre of circulating anti-glomerular basem

The presence of a high titre of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies at the time of transplantation increases the risk of recurrence in the allograft in Goodpasture syndrome.[14] In contrast, clinical recurrence is

extremely rare if the antibody is undetectable over the 6 months prior to transplantation.[14] The prevalence of recurrent lupus nephritis is very low.[15, 16] The vast majority of recipients with ESRD due to lupus nephritis has lost serological activity of systemic lupus erythematosus, Erlotinib mw and seems to be in a burn-out state. As a result, the recurrence rate of lupus nephritis is extremely low. Recent studies indicate the possibility of early recognition of recurrence in several glomerular diseases. The existence of circulating permeability factors proposed by Savin’s group may be a notable predictor of recurrence of FSGS.[17, 18] Circulating urokinase receptor, which has been reported as a cause of FSGS, may also be a promising predictor of FSGS recurrence.[19]

To date, there is no reproducible study showing that these interesting factors play pivotal INCB018424 roles in the pathogenesis of recurrent FSGS. Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody is detectable in approximately 60% of patients with primary membranous glomerulonephritis.[20, 21] Detection of anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody in the recipient may be a sensitive predictor of recurrence of membranous nephropathy. Disorders of complement regulatory proteins like factors I mutation, factor H mutation, C3 nephritic factors and others play pivotal roles in the development of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)[22, 23] and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type-II as basement membrane dense deposit disease (DDD). The

development of an analysis Atezolizumab system for complement regulatory factors and related proteins or related gene abnormalities will contribute greatly to predicting the recurrence of these diseases. The development of therapeutic approaches to regulate these factors may prevent many recurrent glomerulopathies in the near future. A humanized monoclonal antibody against terminal complement component C5b-9, the terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab, is a very potent preventative agent for the recurrence of atypical HUS.[24] New information on disorders of complement regulatory proteins (factors), like factor I mutation and factor H mutation, could deliver a useful predictor for preventing recurrent nephritis. A highly sensitive detection method for free light chains and kappa/lambda ratio is beneficial in early diagnosis of the recurrent light chain deposition disease and/or AL-amyloidosis. Protocol biopsy is widely accepted in Japan.

Here we review recent evidence in support of these seemingly oppo

Here we review recent evidence in support of these seemingly opposing notions gleaned from cell and animal models as well as investigations of patient samples, with particular emphasis on studies relevant to Parkinson’s disease. “
“We report a case of an infant with unique and find more unreported combinations of brain anomalies. The patient showed distinctive facial findings, severe delay in psychomotor development, cranial nerve palsy and seizures. Brain magnetic resonance imaging performed at 5 days of age revealed complex brain malformations, including heterotopia

around the mesial wall of lateral ventricles, dysmorphic cingulate gyrus, and enlarged midbrain tectum. The patient unexpectedly died at 13 months of age. Postmortem pathological findings included a polymicrogyric cingulate cortex, periventricular nodular heterotopia, basal ganglia and thalamic anomalies, and dysmorphic midbrain tectum. Potential

candidate genes showed no abnormalities by traditional PCR-based sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing confirmed the presence of novel gene variants for filamin B (FLNB), guanylate binding protein family member 6, and chromosome X open reading frame 59, which adapt to the autosomal recessive mode or X-linked recessive mode. CYC202 purchase Although immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the expression of FLNB protein in the vessel walls and white matter in autopsied specimens, there may be functional relevance of the compound heterozygous FLNB variants during brain development.

“Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lipid storage disorder. Two disease-causing genes (NPC1 and NPC2) have been identified. NPC is characterized MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit by neuronal and glial lipid storage and NFTs. Here, we report a man with juvenile-onset progressive neurological deficits, including pyramidal signs, ataxia, bulbar palsy, vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and psychiatric symptoms; death occurred at age 37 before definitive clinical diagnosis. Post mortem gross examination revealed a unique distribution of brain atrophy, predominantly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Microscopically, lipid storage in neurons and widely distributed NFTs were observed. Lipid storage cells appeared in systemic organs and filipin staining indicated intracellular cholesterol accumulation in hepatic macrophages. Electron microscopy revealed accumulation of lipids and characteristic oligolamellar inclusions. These findings suggested an NPC diagnosis. Neuronal loss and gliosis were frequently accompanied by NFTs and occurred in the frontal and temporal cortices, hippocampus, amygdala, basal forebrain, basal ganglia, thalamus, substantia nigra and brain stem nuclei. Lewy bodies (LBs) were observed in most, but not all, regions where NFTs were evident.

All procedures were performed under local anesthesia except one

All procedures were performed under local anesthesia except one. In all cases, defects were obtained after skin cancer excisions. Results: The operative time ranged from 55 to 75 min. All flaps survived with an average follow-up of 8 months, reconstructions have maintained a cosmetically pleasing result. We believe that SB flaps may be a new option for reconstruction of temporal defects with the advantages of local flaps, without the inconvenience of a skin pedicle. Moreover, these flaps raise the question of the use of SB based flaps for the coverage of moderate-sized skin BAY 57-1293 defects anywhere in the body, and open new fields in reconstructive surgery. © 2014 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:554–557, 2014. “
“Adipose tissue-derived stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-1

(IGF-1) have shown potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an in vivo biologic scaffold, consisting of white adipose tissue flap (WATF) and/or selleck kinase inhibitor IGF-1 on nerve regeneration in a crush injury model. Forty rats all underwent a sciatic nerve crush injury and then received: a pedicled WATF, a controlled local release of IGF-1, both treatments, or no treatment at the injury site. Outcomes were the normalized maximum isometric tetanic force (ITF) of the tibialis anterior muscle and histomorphometric measurements. At 4 weeks, groups with WATF had a statistically significant improvement in maximum ITF recovery, as compared to those without (P < 0.05), and there was an increase in myelin thickness and total axon count in the WATF-only group versus control (P < 0.01). Functional and histomorphometric data suggest that IGF-1 suppressed the effect of the WATF. Use of a pedicled WATF improved the functional and histomorphometrical buy ZD1839 results after axonotmesis in a rat model. IGF-1 does not appear to enhance nerve regeneration in this model. Utilizing the WATF may have a beneficial therapeutic role in peripheral nerve injuries. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 33:367–375, 2013. “

and complex defects of the head and neck involving multiple anatomical and functional subunits are a reconstructive challenge. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the reconstructive indications of the use of simultaneous double free flaps in head and neck oncological surgery. This is a retrospective review of 21 consecutive cases of head and neck malignancies treated surgically with resection and reconstruction with simultaneous use of double free flaps. Nineteen of 21 patients had T4 primary tumor stage. Eleven patients had prior history of radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy. Forty-two free flaps were used in these patients. The predominant combination was that of free fibula osteo-cutaneous flap with free anterolateral thigh (ALT) fascio-cutaneous flap.

Fusion of the limiting MVB endosomal membrane with the plasma mem

Fusion of the limiting MVB endosomal membrane with the plasma membrane releases the intraluminal vesicles into the extracellular environment,[14] whereafter they are known as exosomes (Fig. 1). The fusion of MVB with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of exosomes is a constitutive process in most cell types,[15] although it is also LBH589 subject to regulation by a variety of stimuli. Exosome release from MVB has been demonstrated to be regulated by endosomal and vesicular trafficking proteins,[16, 17] Rab small GTPase family members,[18, 19] ceramide[20] and calcium.[18] Exosomes are emerging as a part of the cellular response to a range of different stresses.

Increased exosome release has been reported in hypoxia,[21] acidic pH[22], heat shock[23] and oxidative stress.[24] Significantly, p53 has been implicated in regulating exosome release,[25] further providing support to the idea that exosomes may act as a intercellular signals to communicate during cellular stress. Exosome isolation protocols vary depending on the biological fluid of origin, but generally involve serial centrifugation at low speed, followed by ultracentrifugation at 100 000 g to pellet exosomes.[26, 27] Alternatively, exosomes can be isolated by immunocapture or size exclusion methods.[26, 28] Filtration and microfluidics

approaches have been developed,[29, 30] but have yet to be widely adopted. Recently, a proprietary method of exosome isolation called ExoquickTM (System Biosciences, Mountain View, INCB024360 price California, USA) has been made commercially available.[31] Exosomes have densities between 1.10–1.21 g/mL,

and this characteristic is often exploited for further purification, either by sucrose density gradients or flotation on sucrose/deuterium oxide cushion.[26, 27, 32] Velocity gradients can also be used, next especially in order to distinguish between viral and exosomal vesicles.[33, 34] A comparison of different methods showed that circulating exosomes isolated by ExoquickTM precipitation produce exosomal mRNA and miRNA with greater purity and quantity than ultracentrifugation.[35] The morphology and size of exosomes were first characterized by electron microscopy (see Fig. 2), and further characterization of exosomes has traditionally relied upon biochemical methods such as immunoblotting, mass spectrometry, 2-DIGE and microarrays, although atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering technologies have also been used. The ExoCarta and vesiclepedia databases provide a comprehensive record of exosomal protein, RNA and lipid profiles (http://www.microvesicles.org).[36] Detection and quantification of exosomes currently relies upon indirect methods such as immunoblotting of exosomal proteins, activity of exosomal enzymes,[37, 38] exosomal protein quantification,[23] fluorescent labelling of exosomes[39, 40] or antibody-specific bead-coupled approaches.

1c) As studies of the effects of statins in other experimental m

1c). As studies of the effects of statins in other experimental models have suggested that the actions of this class of drugs are related to

their anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on both T cells and tumours, it was important selleck products to rule out that the capacity of simvastatin to induce Foxp3 expression was not secondary to an inhibition of responder T-cell proliferation. However, simvastatin either alone or in combination with TGF-β had only a slight inhibitory effect on the proliferation of CFSE-labelled CD4+ T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 in our induction cultures (Fig. 1d). Furthermore, the addition of simvastatin did not induce apoptosis and had no effect on the cell cycle of Foxp3− T cells (Fig. S1). Hence, the effects of simvastatin are directly mediated by enhancing the conversion of Foxp3− to Foxp3+ T cells. To address whether Foxp3+ T cells induced in vitro in the presence of simvastatin and TGF-β were suppressive, Foxp3− T cells were isolated from the spleen and lymph nodes of Foxp3gfp mice and activated with plate-bound CD3/CD28 antibody in the presence of TGF-β alone or the combination of simvastatin and TGF-β. The induced GFP+ cells were sorted by FACS, added to Foxp3− responder Z-VAD-FMK supplier cells and T-depleted spleen cells as antigen-presenting

cells, and were stimulated with soluble anti-CD3. The Foxp3+ cells induced in the presence of simvastatin/TGF-β were as suppressive as the Foxp3+ T cells induced with TGF-β alone (Fig. 2). The addition of simvastatin therefore did not modulate the function of the induced Foxp3+ T cells. Simvastatin

blocks all downstream pathways of the mevalonate pathway including cholesterol biosynthesis, synthesis of farnesyl bisphosphate, and geranylgeranyl bisphosphate (Fig. 3a). To determine which downstream pathway primarily mediates the synergistic effects of simvastatin on Foxp3 induction, we added simvastatin or downstream pathway-specific inhibitors together with TGF-β to the Foxp3 induction assay (Fig. 3b). As shown above, simvastatin Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) enhanced the induction of Foxp3-expressing cells in the presence of a low concentration of TGF-β. In contrast, the addition of an inhibitor of farnesylation had no effect on the induction of Foxp3 expression whereas the inhibitor of geranylgeranylation mimicked the effects of simvastatin. This result clearly demonstrates that the synergistic effects of simvastatin on the induction of Foxp3 are secondary to inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation. We performed a kinetic study as an initial approach to the analysis of the mechanisms by which simvastatin enhances the induction of Foxp3+ Tregs. When analysed 24 hr after T-cell stimulation, cells cultured with simvastatin alone did not express Foxp3 and no differences were observed, at this time-point between the percentage of Foxp3+ T cells induced by TGF-β and the percentage induced by the combination or TGF-β and simvastatin (Fig. 4a).