Furthermore, the subcellular localization of these proteins revealed by the 2-D gel correlated with their phosphorylation states and alternative splicing patterns. The results also indicated that the multiple forms of hnRNP K were differentially AMG510 in vitro modulated in response to external stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or serum.”
“Purpose: Renal failure induced anemia develops as a result of inadequate production of erythropoietin, which is the primary regulator of red blood cell production. We previously noted that culture expanded primary renal cells
stably express erythropoietin and suggested that these cells may be used as a potential treatment for renal failure induced anemia. We investigated whether these cells are able to regulate erythropoietin expression GSK1904529A cost in a controlled manner under different oxygen and environmental conditions.
and Methods: Primary rat renal cells were exposed to different hypoxic (0.1% to 1% O-2) and normoxic environments. Erythropoietin expression was assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Erythropoietin production was measured in culture medium using Meso Scale Discovery(R) assays. Results were plotted to compare different levels of production to the control.
Results: Cultured renal cells expressed high levels of erythropoietin under hypoxia for up to 24 hours with a gradual decrease thereafter. However, erythropoietin expression was decreased when cells were switched from a hypoxic to a normoxic environment within the initial 24 hours. This indicated that cultured renal cells
have the capacity to sense environmental oxygen tension and regulate erythropoietin expression accordingly. In addition, erythropoietin release in medium followed a pattern similar to that of gene expression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that primary renal cells have the ability to regulate erythropoietin gene expression and release through environment dependent mechanisms. This also suggests that with further study the possibility exists of developing these cells as a potential method to treat renal failure induced anemia.”
“3-D cell culture models are important in cancer biology since they provide improved understanding of AZD1480 manufacturer tumor microenvironment. We have established a 3-D culture model using HepG2 in natural collagen-based scaffold to mimic the development of small avascular tumor in vivo. Morphological characterization showed that HepG2 colonies grew within the interior of the scaffold and showed enhanced extracellular matrix deposition. High levels of cell proliferation in the outermost regions of the scaffold created a hypoxic microenvironment in the 3-D culture system, as indicated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha stabilization, detectable by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.