g Hormonema dematioides, Phoma sp , Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cr

g. Hormonema dematioides, Phoma sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus adeliensis). The abundance of the dominant clade (# 12, P. chrysogenum group) in the Index-2 Tucidinostat in vitro building did not change following remediation (Figure 3, Additional file 2 Table S1). Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first time that the effect of moisture and moisture damage remediation on indoor fungal assemblages has been studied using a whole community approach and source tracking. It is also the first study to compare fungal community composition

using a large selection of species-specific qPCR assays and clone library sequencing in combination with culture. We found increased fungal diversity in one of the studied buildings

with moisture damage, Selonsertib ic50 while in the second damaged building, high numbers of Penicillium were present. In neither building did we find a concomitant increase in culturable fungal concentrations or fungal biomass in surface dust. A majority of the fungal species isolated from contaminated building materials was not prevalent in the pre-remediation dust samples collected from those buildings. Methodological comparison indicated that cultivation in combination with a large qPCR panel, failed to detect a majority of the fungi in indoor samples; however, the most abundant species appeared to be detected by all methods. Clone library sequencing, to the extent used here, was found to be less sensitive than qPCR for detecting individual species. Fungal diversity in dust samples Cloning and sequencing studies revealed an average of 54 observed and 146 estimated species-level phylotypes (OTUs) per sample. This level of diversity is similar to that observed previously using molecular methods in floor Mephenoxalone dust and indoor air filter samples [21–23] and higher than that detected in outdoor air filter samples [27, 28]. The dominant genera we observed in dust and material samples were in agreement with previous

studies using cultivation [29–32]; Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevalent genera in dust according to molecular and culture-independent methods. These and other common indoor mold genera, including PHA-848125 clinical trial Aspergillus, Botrytis, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Wallemia and Phoma/Sphaeropsidales-group fungi accounted for 95-96% of total CFUs and qPCR CE counts and approximately 40% of clones in nucITS libraries. The remaining 60% of nucITS clones, however, accounted for almost 90% of the total diversity in the sequence material, showing that a vast diversity of indoor fungi remain uncharacterized by cultivation or targeted molecular methods.

casei CRL431, which induces MCP-1 in murine IECs, which may be ex

casei CRL431, which induces MCP-1 in murine IECs, which may be explained as both a

strain-specific and/or a host-specific phenomenon [34]. In addition, not all IEC lines (e.g.: Caco-2, HT29, T84) are able to produce the same cytokine profile upon stimulation, and therefore, there are contradictory reports on the ability of lactobacilli and other Gram-positive commensal bacteria to induce IL-6 in IECs. Thus, as already suggested, this may be one advantage of working with IECs primary cultures [34]. Vinderola et al. [34] reported induction of IL-6 by probiotic lactobacilli in normal murine IECs as it was also the case for the effect on porcine IECs reported in this study. Our results using anti-TLR2 blocking antibodies proved that TLR2 is responsible for the recognition of lactobacilli and induction of IL-6 and Vistusertib price TNF-α, which agrees with the CYT387 order results of Castillo et al. [35]. Dendritic cells are leading gatekeepers and regulators of immunity, which are present in all tissues, especially at the interface with the external environment, such as

the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract [36]. In the gut, they play a fundamental role as they orchestrate the subtle equilibrium between tolerance and protection against infection [37]. We and others have reported that probiotic lactobacilli are able to differentially stimulate and modulate DCs in vitro[22, 23, 37–40]. Thus, we wanted to study how the two immunobiotic L. rhamnosus strains reported here functionally modulate porcine PPs-derived adherent Saracatinib immune cells (CD172a+CD11R1−, CD172a−CD11R1low and CD172a+CD11R1high cells). The main effect of incubating L. rhamnosus with the single populations of immune adherent cells, resulted in differential mRNA expression of the key polarizing cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ, which determine the fate of naïve T-cells. Lr1505 was the strain with the highest capacity to functionally modulate APCs. Considering CD172a+CD11R1high and CD172a−CD11R1low cells as DCs [21], and as such with the ability to favour Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg immune responses, the increases in both IFN-γ and IL-12 induced

especially by Lr1505, may lead to a Th1 response if we extrapolate this data to an in vivo situation. Furthermore, IFN-γ and IL-1β have been shown to have a direct effect on IECs inducing an antiviral program, which inhibits rotavirus entry [41, 42]. Tideglusib On the other hand, Lr1505 also induced IL-10 mRNA and protein expression, which is an immunoregulatory cytokine that avoids inflammatory-tissue injury during infections. Zhou et al. [43] provided direct evidence that aberrant activation of intestinal immunity induced by poly(I:C) or purified rotavirus genomic dsRNA causes a breakdown of the mucosal homeostasis, leading to mucosal damage. Moreover, it was reported that the induction of the regulatory IL-10 plays an important role to control the inflammatory process upon a viral infection to minimize tissue injury [39, 44].

Differences in the number of OTUs among animal diets were evaluat

Differences in the number of OTUs among animal diets were evaluated using an ANOVA (see Tables in manuscript and supplementary information). Here, each dietary treatment was analyzed separately. For multivariate analysis, the 16S OTUs distances among samples first were calculated using the unweighted (bacterial counts as 0 and 1 observations) UniFrac

distance measure ([20], which measures the phylogenetic distances among samples. The weighted (actual abundance) UniFrac distance measure was used because it also considers the relative abundance of each OTU (16S rRNA read) when calculating phylogenetic distances. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) was used mTOR inhibitor to display these differences in 2 dimensions, thereby facilitating an overall assessment of variability in the entire microbiome among samples. To test for multivariate differences among treatment groups, distance based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) [21] was used. STA-9090 purchase In addition, the relative abundances of all genera were evaluated using an ANOVA. Here, relative abundances were transformed (p’ = arcsine (√p)) before analysis, and analyses

were conducted separately for each of the diets. As an initial screening evaluation, uncontrolled p-values were used to screen taxa. Data are illustrated in figures in the manuscript and supplementary information. Rarefaction curves and UniFrac distances were calculated using QIIME [22], and all other analyses were conducted in R [23], using the vegan [24] and labdsv [25] packages. Double hierarchal cluster analysis was conducted using NCSS 2007 Farnesyltransferase software (NCSS, Kaysville, UT) and one-way ANOVA was also conducted using JMP9 software (JMP, SAS, Cary, NC). Acknowledgements The authors recognize

Lana Castleberry for the preparation of community DNA samples for analysis. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1. Evaluation of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes relative abundance to the influence of dietary treatments, (A) One-way Analysis of Firmicutes by Treatment, (B) One-way Analysis of Bacteroidetes by Treatment, and (C) Matched pair comparisons testing the response of the ratio of abundances observed between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes revealing no significant difference between and amongst treatments. (PPT 692 KB) Additional file 2: Figure S2. Evaluation of Phyla showing a response (significant < 0.05, or influenced < 0.1) to dietary buy S63845 treatments (A) Oneway analysis of Synergistetes by treatment, (B) Oneway analysis of WS3 by treatment, (C) Oneway analysis of Actinobacteria by treatment, (D) Oneway analysis of Spirochaetes by treatment. (PPT 110 KB) Additional file 3: Figure S3. Effect of wet DG’s on Beef Cattle Fecal Microbiota.

In order to fulfil this aim an important effort to be made is the

In order to fulfil this aim an important effort to be made is the standardization of different formats in use to describe the same item. So, it is selleck chemicals llc relevant the adoption of thesauri

for indexing the information by concept, but also the use of permanent identificators relating to authors or institutions. Beside the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) mostly used for articles, the DAI (Digital Author Identifier) BI 6727 clinical trial and the DII (Digital Institution Identifier), already adopted by some European projects (CRIS/CERIF) may become relevant tools to mark data in a standardized way. Context metadata are the core elements of the so-called citation based networks, the privileged domain of interest and activity of the communities working in a CRIS (Current Research Information System) environment.

Momelotinib ic50 One particular type of CRIS standard for information systems is the CERIF (Common European Research Information Format) standard, proposed by the European Union and developed and maintained by euroCRIS. This relevant perspective for the future of repository technology was recently debated at international level during a Workshop organized by the Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies of the National Research Council (CNR), in Rome [26]. Turning to the ongoing Italian initiatives with metadata storage and supply in the biomedical field, the experience gained by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità is worth to be mentioned. In 2004 the ISS launched a project aimed at creating a digital archive compliant with the aims of the Open Archives Initiative. In 2006 the ISS built up its own repository, DSpace ISS based on the DSpace platform [27]. The primary object was to provide both data and services regarding research material produced by the ISS most research staff. DSpace is an OAI compliant open-source software released by MIT (Massachusetts

Institute of Technology, US) for archiving e-prints and other kinds of academic content. It preserves and enables easy and open access to all types of digital content including text, images and data sets. The primary goals to be achieved were to store digital information and index it by assigning descriptive metadata in order to keep research material accessible and to preserve content in a safe archive, according to an internal policy (Institutional Policy for Open Access to Scientific Publications) available from the home page of DSpace ISS website. Content retrieval based on the adoption of MeSH terms in the indexing of DSpace ISS items has also featured the repository from the very beginning [28].

9% NaCl as collecting fluid (exact volume determined for each sam

9% NaCl as collecting fluid (exact volume determined for each sample). The samples were frozen at -80 °C and shipped to Zürich on dry ice for further analyses. There, freshly defrosted samples were vortexted for 1 min, sonicated for 5 s, aliquoted and assessed by FISH. Aliquots were also grown at 37 °C anaerobically and in 10% CO2 on LBS agar (Becton Dickinson) with the aim to isolate and type representative strains by partial 16S ARS-1620 concentration rDNA sequencing. Demineralization of discs was determined by quantitative

light-induced fluorescence as described [29]. Preparation of multi-well slides for FISH Overnight cultures of lactobacilli (LBS broth) were washed in 0.9% NaCl, diluted in coating buffer [30], spotted on 18- or 24-well

slides (Cel-Line Associates), air-dried, and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde/PBS (20 min, 4 °C). Analogously, in situ grown biofilm samples, supragingival plaque samples and tongue scrapings were vortexed at maximum speed for 60 s, diluted in coating buffer and coated to 18- or 24-well slides as described [30]. To improve cell wall permeability PX-478 order each well selected for FISH of lactobacilli was treated individually at room temperature first for 5 min with 9 μl of lysozyme (1 mg ml-1; Sigma-Aldrich L-7651) and achromopeptidase (1 mg ml-1; Sigma-Aldrich A-7550) TGF-beta inhibitor in Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) with 5 mM EDTA, and then for 30 min with 9 μ l of lipase (Sigma-Aldrich L-1754; at 25 mg ml-1 in water the lipase suspension was centrifuged for 5 min at 16’000 × g after which the supernatant was used). Thereafter, to limit unspecific FISH probe binding all wells were covered for 30 min at 37 °C with 9 μ l of PBS containing Denhardt’s solution (Fluka 30915; diluted 1:50) in the presence of protectRNA RNase inhibitor (Sigma-Aldrich R-7397; diluted 1:500) [15, 16, 26, 27]. At the end of the respective incubation periods the solutions were carefully aspirated and the slides briefly washed

in wash-buffer (0.9% NaCl, 0.05% Tween 20, 0.01% NaN3), dipped in water, and air-dried. All solutions were made with water of nano-pure quality. Fluorescent in situ hybridization The 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes used in this study are S6 Kinase inhibitor listed in Table 1. Custom-synthesized by Microsynth, they were labeled at 5′-end with Cy3 or 6-FAM, or in some cases at both ends with 6-FAM. Probes marked by “”L-”" in front of the probe name, contain one or two LNA to improve in situ hybridization efficiency [16]. Probes were designed as described previously [30] using the ARB software [31] with the SILVA rRNA database [32, 33] and additional rRNA sequence information from ‘The Ribosomal Data Base Project II’ [34, 35] and the ‘National Center for Biotechnology Information’ [36].

In the present study, we further examined the tumor-suppressing f

In the present study, we further examined the tumor-suppressing function of ECRG4 gene, in terms of cell migration and invasion, 10058-F4 in vitro and explored possible molecular mechanism in ESCC. Materials and methods Construction of eukaryotic expression vector and stable transfection The coding region of ECRG4 cDNA was subcloned into constitutive mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1 (Invitrogen). The cDNA was then fully sequenced to ensure that no mutation was introduced during

the PCR amplification. The resulting plasmid construct was named pcDNA3.1-ECRG4. The human esophageal squamous cell line EC9706 was established and studied by Han et al [9]. EC9706 cells were seeded in 6-cm dishes at 5×105 cells/dish and transfected with pcDNA3.1-ECRG4 PF 01367338 and pcDNA3.1 using lipofectamine™2000 (Invitrogen), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. After culturing in medium containing 400 μg/ml of Alvocidib mouse geneticin (Invitrogen) for 3 weeks, individual clones were isolated. Clones that expressed the ECRG4 cDNA coding region were maintained in medium containing 200 μg/ml of geneticin and used for further experiments. Cell proliferation assay EC9706 cells (pcDNA3.1 and pcDNA3.1-ECRGR4) were seeded into 96-well plates (1.5 × 103 cells/well). After culturing for various durations, cell proliferation was evaluated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Sigma-Aldrich

Co., St. Louis, MO, USA). In brief, 10 μl MTT solution (5 mg/ml) was added to each well, then the cells were cultured for another 4 hours at 37°C, and 100 μl DMSO was added to each well and mix vigorously to solubilize colored crystals produced within the living cells. The absorbance at 570 nm was measured by using a multi-well scanning spectrophotometer Victor 3. In vitro cell migration and invasion assay Selleckchem Ibrutinib Cells growing in the log phase were treated with trypsin and re-suspended as single-cell solutions. A total of 1 × 105 cells in 0.5 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 medium were seeded on a 8 μm-pore polycarbonate membrane Boyden chambers insert in a transwell apparatus(Costar,

Cambridge, MA), either coated with or without Matrigel(BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). 600 μl RPMI1640 containing 20% FBS was added to the lower chamber. After the cells were incubated for 12-24 hours at 37°C in a 5% CO2 incubator, cells on the top surface of the insert were removed by wiping with a cotton swab. Cells that migrated to the bottom surface of the insert were fixed in 100% methanol for 2 minutes, stained in 0.5% crystal violet for 2 min, rinsed in PBS and then subjected to microscopic inspection (×200). Values for invasion and migration were obtained by counting five fields per membrane and represent the average of three independent experiments. Cell adhesion assay Cells were plated on 100 ng/μl Matrigel-coated 96-well plates at a density of 5 × 104 per well.

PloS one 2013,8(7):e69240 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef


PloS one 2013,8(7):e69240.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

22. Li J, Cao B, Liu X, Fu X, Xiong Z, Chen L, Sartor O, Dong Y, Zhang H: Berberine suppresses androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Mol Canc Ther 2011,10(8):1346–1356.CrossRef 23. Park KS, Kim JB, Bae J, Park SY, Jee HG, Lee KE, Youn YK: Berberine inhibited the growth of thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C and TPC1. Yonsei Med J 2012,53(2):346–351.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 24. Mahata S, Bharti AC, Shukla S, Tyagi A, Husain SA, Das BC: Berberine modulates AP-1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Mol Cancer 2011, 10:39.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 25. Hui L, Bakiri L, Stepniak E, Wagner EF: p38alpha: a suppressor of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Cell Crenolanib ic50 Cycle 2007,6(20):2429–2433.PubMedCrossRef 26. Lee HJ, Auh QS, Lee YM, Kang SK, Chang SW, Lee DS, Kim YC, Kim EC: Growth inhibition and c-Met inhibitor apoptosis-inducing effects of Cudraflavone B in human oral cancer cells via MAPK, NF-kappaB, and SIRT1 signaling pathway. Planta Med 2013,79(14):1298–1306.PubMedCrossRef 27. Park HS, Hwang HJ, Kim GY, Cha HJ, Kim WJ, Kim

Selleck BAY 73-4506 ND, Yoo YH, Choi YH: Induction of apoptosis by fucoidan in human leukemia U937 cells through activation of p38 MAPK and modulation of Bcl-2 family. Mar Drugs 2013,11(7):2347–2364.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 28. Cok A, Plaisier C, Salie MJ, Oram DS, Chenge J, Louters LL: Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1. Biochimie 2011,93(7):1187–1192.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 29. Burgeiro A, Gajate C, el Dakir H, Villa-Pulgarin JA, Oliveira PJ, Mollinedo F: Involvement of mitochondrial and B-RAF/ERK signaling pathways in berberine-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Anti-cancer drugs 2011,22(6):507–518.PubMedCrossRef FAD 30. Cheng B, Song J, Zou Y, Wang Q, Lei Y, Zhu C, Hu C: Responses of vascular smooth muscle cells to estrogen are dependent on balance between ERK and p38 MAPK pathway activities. Int J Cardiol 2009,134(3):356–365.PubMedCrossRef

31. Finch AR, Caunt CJ, Perrett RM, Tsaneva-Atanasova K, McArdle CA: Dual specificity phosphatases 10 and 16 are positive regulators of EGF-stimulated ERK activity: indirect regulation of ERK signals by JNK/p38 selective MAPK phosphatases. Cell Signal 2012,24(5):1002–1011.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 32. Li J, Gu L, Zhang H, Liu T, Tian D, Zhou M, Zhou S: Berberine represses DAXX gene transcription and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Lab Invest 2013,93(3):354–364.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 33. Halacli SO, Canpinar H, Cimen E, Sunguroglu A: Effects of gamma irradiation on cell cycle, apoptosis and telomerase activity in p53 wild-type and deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell lines. Oncol Lett 2013,6(3):807–810.PubMedCentralPubMed 34.

Br J Haematol 2004,125(6):749–755 PubMed 160 Eisenbarth GS: Upda

Br J Haematol 2004,125(6):749–755.PubMed 160. Eisenbarth GS: Update in type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007,92(7):2403–2407.PubMed 161. Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL, Klein R: Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 1998,21(1):143–156.PubMed 162. Sima AA, Zhang W, Grunberger G: Type 1 diabetic neuropathy and C-peptide. Exp Diabesity Res 2004,5(1):65–77.PubMed 163. Ingberg

CM, Palmer M, Schvarcz E, Aman J: Prevalence of urinary tract symptoms in long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab 1998,24(4):351–354.PubMed 164. Couri CE, Oliveira MC, Stracieri AB, Moraes DA, Pieroni F, Barros GM, Madeira MI, Malmegrim KC, Foss-Freitas MC, Simoes BP, et al.: C-peptide levels and insulin independence following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2009,301(15):1573–1579.PubMed 165. Snarski E, Torosian T, Paluszewska 4SC-202 in vitro M, Urbanowska E, Milczarczyk A, Jedynasty K, Franek E, Jedrzejczak WW: Alleviation of exogenous insulin requirement in type

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2011; Lamichhaney et al 2012; Limborg et al 2012; DeFaveri et a

2011; Lamichhaney et al. 2012; Limborg et al. 2012; DeFaveri et al. 2013); ocean connectivity has been correlated with genetic divergence in herring (Teacher

et al. 2013) as has temperature for herring and three-spined stickleback (Limborg et al. 2012; DeFaveri et al. 2013). Additional factors that have been demonstrated to affect genetic structure include larval development and dispersal (Kyle and Boulding 2000). For example, the free-floating larval stage in Atlantic herring and a later pelagic life stage mediate potential for long distance dispersal and is a likely explanation for the lack of genetic structuring for herring within the Baltic Sea shown here, as well as in previous studies using neutral genetic markers (Bekkevold et al. 2005; Jørgensen et al. 2005). Genetic divergence among herring populations has indeed been shown to be affected more by ocean selleck chemicals llc currents than geographic

distance (Teacher et al. 2013). Ocean currents are more likely to affect species with freefloating life stages, such as herring, or bladderwrack, for which dispersal of eggs are limited, but detached adults have the potential for dispersal by means of rafting (Tatarenkov et al. 2007). Species with stationary development on the other hand, such as European whitefish and Northern pike, which are both associated with freshwater spawning, are likely to have more limited dispersal. The observed pattern of LY333531 isolation by distance found in whitefish and pike in the present study as well as previous studies (Laikre et al. 2005b; Olsson et al. 2012a) is consistent with such limited dispersal and suggests that migration predominantly takes place between geographically proximate populations. It should be noted that recent studies have detected isolation by distance also in herring (Teacher et al. 2013) and three-spined and nine-spined stickleback (DeFaveri et al. 2012). Those studies included

either larger sample sizes and/or more genetic markers than examined here, however, and may thus have been characterized by higher statistical power for detection of isolation by distance. Other factors potentially affecting genetic diversity in the Baltic Sea include postglacial colonization of the area by different phylogenetic lineages. Nine-spined stickleback in the Baltic Sea has been shown to consist of one western and one eastern lineage meeting roughly at the entrance of the Baltic Sea (Shikano et al. 2010; Teacher et al. 2011), as previously also shown for cod (Nielsen et al. 2003) and the bivalve Macoma balthica (Luttikhuizen et al. 2012). A more extreme example of transition zones is represented by the blue Quizartinib research buy mussel, where the species M. trossulus, native to the Baltic Sea is hybridized with M. edulis (Riginos and Cunningham 2005).

During silica synthesis by sol–gel process under certain conditio

During silica synthesis by sol–gel process under certain conditions like restriction of gel growth, silica gets precipitated. In such preparation, the steps buy ARRY-438162 involved are coagulation and precipitation from silica solution. In the present investigation, we have focused our effort on preparing stable nanosilica from selleck screening library sodium silicate which was synthesized from Vietnamese rice husk using the sol–gel technique. Main text Materials Rice husk from the

natural rice source of Mekong Delta, Vietnam, was used. Sodium hydroxide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl amine (CA), polyethylene glycol (PEG, 10,000), Arkopal, cethyl ammonium chloride (CAC), Aliquat 336, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC), cetylpyridiniumbromide (CPB), and cetyltrimethylammonium

chloride (CTAC) were purchased SRT2104 clinical trial from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany) and used as surfactant agents. Chlorhydric acid, sulfuric acid, and n-butanol were all purchased from Xilong (Guangzhou, China). Experimental procedure Pretreatment of the RHA The pretreatment of the RHA consisted of acid and thermal treatments. After treating the RH with 10% HCl and 30 wt.% sulfuric acid solution, the material was burned in a muffle furnace at 600°C for 4 h to remove all incorporated hydrocarbons. An acid washing step was used to remove the small quantities of minerals prior to silica extraction from RHA in the following manner. The calcinated RHA (10

g) was acid-leached with 10% HCl and afterwards 30 wt.% sulfuric acid solution at 100°C for 2 h in a Pyrex three-neck round-bottom flask equipped with a reflux condenser in a hemispherical heating mantle. Then, the slurry was filtered and washed with distilled water for several times until the pH value equaled 7. Preparation of sodium silicate solution Sodium hydroxide solution (3.5 mol/L) was added to the pretreated RHA and boiled for 5 h in a Pyrex three-neck round-bottom flask equipped with a reflux condenser in a hemispherical heating mantle to dissolve the silica and to produce a sodium silicate solution. The solution was filtered and washed with boiling distilled water. The final solid sample was cooled to room temperature. Synthesis of silica Methane monooxygenase nanoparticles Surfactant (2.0 wt.%) was dissolved in the water/butanol (1:1) solvent. Subsequently, RHA-derived sodium silicate was slowly added into the CTAB/water/butanol solution, and the mixture was stirred at 60°C. Then, 0.5 mol/L sulfuric acid solution was added gradually into the suspension in order to initiate the hydrolysis-condensation reaction at pH ~ 4. The resulting gel mixture was aged at 60°C for 8 h. Then, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 wt.% of CTAB were dissolved in the water/butanol solvent with 1:1 ratio. Subsequently, RHA-derived sodium silicate was slowly added to the CTAB water/butanol solution that was being stirred at 60°C. Then, 0.