Clustered protocols use two or three injections at each weekly visit, thus Bioactive Compound Library price reducing the total time required to reach
maintenance dose (usually in 7–8 weeks). Rush desensitization protocols have been also described, but are used less often for aeroallergens than for hymenoptera venoms (see below) in view of the higher rate of systemic reactions, including anaphylaxis . Dose reductions are made for delayed or missed injections, during a symptomatic period (for example during the pollen season) or following large local reactions (≥ 10 cm) and systemic reactions. General health, adverse events, changes in medication and peak expiratory flow are monitored prior to administration of SCIT. An observation period of 1 h after the injection is mandatory, with peak expiratory flow testing prior Selleckchem Ponatinib to discharge. However, severe ‘non-immediate’ reactions can occur up to 24 h after allergen injection. SLIT. SLIT involves placing the vaccine in solution (drop preparation) or tablet
form under the tongue for 1–2 min followed by swallowing. Patient selection for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is identical to that for SCIT. The safety profile of SLIT is superior to SCIT, and serious side effects such as anaphylaxis have been extremely rare [17–23]. Many patients develop minor discomfort in the early phase of treatment, including oropharyngeal pruritis and angioedema, which may require treatment with an antihistamine, but these symptoms usually settle with continued administration of the vaccine. The indications, contraindications and general considerations in administration of
SLIT are the same as described under SCIT. However, there are some special considerations listed as follows. One particular preparation (Grazax; ALK Abello, Denmark) currently licensed in the United Kingdom contains fish gelatin. It may be used cautiously in patients with a history of fish allergy, but is absolutely contraindicated in patients with history of anaphylaxis to fish. Dosage and regimens. Sublingual immunotherapy has been used for Morin Hydrate several aeroallergens including pollens, house dust mite and cat. The optimum dosage, duration and frequency of administration have not yet been established. Sublingual immunotherapy involves a much higher dose of allergen than SCIT. The cumulative monthly dosage of SLIT used in clinical studies has been variable, but has been 0·6–500 times greater than customary SCIT . Several dosing regimens have been employed, including daily (fixed or incremental dosing) [24–26], three times per week  and weekly . With seasonal allergens such as pollen, treatment has been given preseasonally, co-seasonally, pre- and co-seasonally and perennially. Prolonged preseasonal administration induces greater clinical benefit, and if treatment is continued perennially, clinical and immunological responses improve in subsequent years of treatment [29,30].