The effects of the Cox maze procedure on left atrial function cou

The effects of the Cox maze procedure on left atrial function could only be detected by analyzing segmental wallmotion. Understanding the precise physiologic effects of the Cox HM781-36B order maze procedure on atrial function will help in developing less-damaging lesion sets for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation.”
“Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Controversial results have been obtained measuring different serum antioxidant enzymes and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine. The aim of this study is to find the effect of olanzapine

on total antioxidant status (TAS) and lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients. Thirty schizophrenic patients were treated orally with olanzapine (10-20 mg/day) for 2 months. Thirty healthy subjects were also included as a control group. Blood samples were taken from patients before and after olanzapine therapy, and analyzed AICAR molecular weight for serum

TAS and MDA. In schizophrenic patients, mean values of pretreatment serum TAS were significantly less (difference = 37.4% of control) than the control value, whereas serum MDA levels were significantly higher (difference = 176% of control) than the control values. Olanzapine treatment for 2 months significantly increased serum TAS levels (37.8%) and reduced serum MDA levels (22.2%) in comparison to respective pretreatment values. In conclusion, the data suggest that olanzapine therapy for 2 months at least partially ameliorates adverse effects on the antioxidant defense mechanism in schizophrenia. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objectives: Low cardiac output state is the principal cause of morbidity after surgical intervention for congenital heart disease. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, apoptosis, capillary leak syndrome, and myocardial edema are associated factors. We established a clinically relevant model to examine relationships between myocardial ischemia, edema, and cardiac dysfunction and to assess the role of the water transport proteins aquaporins.

Methods: Sixteen

lambs were studied. Seven were control animals not undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, and 9 underwent bypass. Six had 90 minutes of aortic cross-clamping Depsipeptide in vitro with blood cardioplegia and moderate hypothermia. The remaining 3 underwent cardiopulmonary bypass without aortic crossclamping. Hemodynamic and biochemical data were recorded, and myocardial edema, apoptotic markers, and aquaporin expression were determined after death.

Results: The group undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping had a low cardiac output state, with early postoperative tachycardia, hypotension, increased serum lactate levels, and impaired tissue oxygen delivery (P,. 05) compared with the group undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass without aortic crossclamping.

Results The esophageal epithelium from GERD patients had lower e

Results. The esophageal epithelium from GERD patients had lower electrical resistance and higher epithelial currents than controls. Claudin-1 and -4 were significantly decreased in GERD patients. The bile salt DCA in the low concentration of 1.5 mM and trypsin increased the resistance and claudin-1 expression, while the higher concentration of 2.5 mM DCA and trypsin decreased the resistance and the claudin-3, -4 and E-cadherin expressions. Conclusion. In addition to acidic reflux, duodenal reflux components, such as bile salts and trypsin, have the potential to disrupt the

esophageal barrier function, partly by modulating the TJ proteins. However, the expression of TJ is dependent on both the refluxed material as well as the concentration of the bile salt.”
“Objective. selleck screening library Meta-analyses have indicated effect of probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, few long-term trials have been conducted and

uncertainty remains as to effectiveness and long-term effect in a primary care setting. We aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics compared with placebo in the management of IBS in primary care during a 6-month treatment period and AR-13324 with a 6-month follow-up. Material and methods. We randomized IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria to receive two capsules twice daily either containing placebo or a probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei F19, Lactobacillus acidophilus L alpha 5 and Bifidobacterium Bb12 in

an amount of 1.3 x 10(10) CFU per capsule. Primary endpoint was proportion of responders defined as patients reporting adequate relief (AR) at least 50% of the time in the 6-month treatment period. Secondary outcomes were proportions of patients reporting AR at different time points, and change in gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life (HrQOL) from baseline to 6 and 12 months. 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase Results. A total of 131 patients were included in this study. The proportion of responders in the treatment period was 52% (35/67) in the probiotic group versus 41% (26/64) in the placebo group, p = 0.18. Overall we found no difference between the groups in change in gastrointestinal symptoms after treatment. Patients improved in HrQOL, but with no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion. During a 6-month treatment period, we were not able to detect a positive effect of probiotic when compared with placebo.”
“Objective. The intestinal microbiota plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) is underrepresented in IBD patients and have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects in mice.

Thus, the trauma-induced social deficits appear to be associated

Thus, the trauma-induced social deficits appear to be associated with,

and possibly caused by, plastic changes in fear-related amygdala subdivisions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A hallmark of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication cycle is its tight link with host cell lipid synthesis. This is best illustrated by the peculiar pathway used for the assembly of infectious HCV particles. Research in the past few years has shown that formation of HC-virions is closely connected to lipid droplets that could serve as an assembly platform. Moreover, HCV particle production appears to be strictly linked to very-low-density lipoproteins. In this review, Depsipeptide in vitro we focus on new insights into the molecular aspects of the architecture and assembly of this unique type of virus particle.”
“Recent research has pointed to a role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in long-term potentiation and memory. The present series of experiments examined the effects of the application of exogenous BDNF on memory consolidation and reconsolidation of a weak

training stimulus with the day-old chick, using the passive avoidance learning paradigm. Chicks injected intracranially with 12.5 mu g/mL recombinant BDNF immediately after a single-trial training event displayed enhanced retention relative to saline up to 24h post-training. Furthermore, this dose was also shown to enhance retention when administered following initial weak training. Thus, exogenous BDNF was shown to enhance both consolidation and reconsolidation of memory when administered Afatinib supplier acutely to the day-old chick. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective was to measure the effects of wallowing on the performance and physiology of 12 female buffaloes with similar live weight of 250 kg. The study took place at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, Oxalosuccinic acid each group comprising of 6 buffaloes. The two groups were used to evaluate the effects of wallowing on the animals’ thermal status under hot humid conditions. Results (no wallow vs. wallow) indicated that wallowing was sufficient to result in the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.86 +/- 0.85 vs. 39.21 +/- 0.62 degrees C; P < 0.01). water intake (28.02 +/- 4.96 vs. 27.47 +/- 4.94 1l/hd/d; P < 0.05), Free triiodothyronine (4.12 +/- 1.17 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.74 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and cortisol (3.55 +/- 1.53 vs. 2.33 +/- 1.39 ng/ml; P < 0.05). It was concluded that wallowing enabled the buffaloes to cool themselves down by cutaneous evaporation. The use of wallowing proved to be an effective method of alleviating thermal stress in buffaloes and is recommended for use during dry winter periods in monsoonal areas. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the effects of t

Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the effects of the CB1 receptor agonist

WIN55,212-2, the inhibitor of anandamide uptake AM404 and the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597, on compulsive-associate behavior in male C57BL/6J mice submitted to the marble burying test (MBT), an animal model used for anti-compulsive drug screening. WIN55,212-2 (1 and 3 mg/kg), AM404 (1 and 3 mg/kg) and URB597 (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) induced a significant decrease in the number of buried marbles compared to controls. Pretreatment with the CBI receptor antagonist, AM251, prevented both WIN55,212-2 and URB597 effects. Tozasertib molecular weight These results suggest a potential role for drugs acting on the cannabinoid system in modulating compulsive behavior. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We previously reported that the novel antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine may EPZ015938 order be produced at least partly through the activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons via inhibiting G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. In this study, we investigated the action

of tipepidine on DA D-2 receptor-mediated GIRK currents (I-DA(GIRK)) and membrane excitability in DA neurons using the voltage clamp and current clamp modes of the patch-clamp techniques, respectively. DA neurons were acutely dissociated from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats and identified by the presence of the hyperpolarization-activated currents. medroxyprogesterone Tipepidine reversibly inhibited I-DA(GIRK) with IC50 7.0 mu M and also abolished I-DA(GIRK)

irreversibly activated in the presence of intracellular GTP gamma S. Then tipepidine depolarized membrane potential and generated action potentials in the neurons current-clamped. Furthermore, the drug at 40 mg/kg, i.p. increased the number of cells immunopositive both for c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the VTA. These results suggest that tipepidine may activate DA neurons in VTA through the inhibition of GIRK channel-activated currents. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Gag protein directs the assembly in the cytoplasm of immature viral capsids, which subsequently bud from the plasma membranes of infected cells. MMTV Gag localizes to discrete cytoplasmic foci in mouse mammary epithelial cells, consistent with the formation of cytosolic capsids. Unexpectedly, we also observed an accumulation of Gag in the nucleoli of infected cells derived from mammary gland tumors. To detect Gag-interacting proteins that might influence its subcellular localization, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed. Ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9 or L9), an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit and a putative tumor suppressor, was identified as a Gag binding partner. Overexpression of L9 in cells expressing the MMTV(C3H) provirus resulted in specific, robust accumulation of Gag in nucleoli.

MMP-9 is unlikely to be a clinically useful biomarker of CHD risk

MMP-9 is unlikely to be a clinically useful biomarker of CHD risk, but may still play a role in the pathogenesis of CHD.”
“Cranial visceral afferent nerve transfers information about visceral organs to nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) by releasing the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Various endogenous modulators affect autonomic reflex responses by changing glutamatergic responses in the NTS. Although the expression of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors in glutamatergic terminals is known, their functional contribution on glutamate release is poorly characterized. Here, we used mechanically isolated

NTS neurons to examine the mechanisms by which presynaptic GABA(A) ABT-737 cell line and GABA(B) receptors modulate glutamatergic excitatory

postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). EPSC were isolated by clamping voltage at equilibrium potential for chloride (-49 mV) without any GABA receptors antagonists. In all neurons, GABA(A) agonist, muscimol (1 and 10 mu M), increased EPSC frequency (284.1+/-57% and 278.4+/-87% of control, respectively), but the GABA(B) agonist, baclofen (10 mu M), decreased EPSC frequency (43+/-8% of control). The GABA(A) antagonist, gabazine (18 mu M), decreased EPSC frequency in 50% of tested neurons, whereas GABA(B) antagonist, CGP (5 mu M), increased the EPSC frequency in 36% of tested neurons. External application of GABA (1 and 30 mu M) facilitating the EPSC frequency. The facilitation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated release of glutamate was blocked by Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter type 1 antagonist or Na+ and Wortmannin Ca2+ channel inhibitors indicating GABA(A) presynaptic depolarization. Thus, tonically released GABA activates GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to modulate the release of glutamate. These findings provide cellular mechanisms of heterosynaptic GABA-glutamate integration of peripheral visceral afferent signals in the NTS. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Plasmid DNA vaccines serve in a wide array of applications ranging from prophylactic vaccines to potential therapeutic tools against infectious diseases and cancer. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms underlying the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and their potential role in adaptive immunity during DNA-based immunization against Carbohydrate hepatitis B virus surface antigen in mice. We observed that the mature Mac-1(+) CD27(-) NK cell subset increased in the liver of mice early after DNA injection, whereas the number of the less mature Mac-1(+) CD27(+) NK cells in the liver and spleen was significantly reduced. This effect was attributed to bacterial sequences present in the plasmid backbone rather than to the encoded antigen and was not observed in immunized MyD88-deficient mice. The activation of NK cells by plasmid-DNA injection was associated with an increase in their effector functions that depended on the expressed antigen.

Here, we characterized the properties of the interaction between

Here, we characterized the properties of the interaction between the DEW capsid (C) protein and hepatic lipid droplets (LDs), which was recently shown to be essential for the virus replication cycle. Zeta potential analysis revealed a negative surface charge of LDs, with an average surface charge of -19 mV. The

titration of LDs with C protein led to an increase of the surface charge, which reached a plateau at +13.7 mV, suggesting that the viral protein-LD interaction exposes the protein cationic surface to the aqueous environment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy measurements were performed by using C proteinfunctionalized AFM tips. The C CFTRinh-172 in vivo protein-LD interaction was found to be strong, with a single (un)binding force of 33.6 pN. This binding was dependent on high intracellular concentrations of potassium ions but not sodium. The inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase in DEW-infected cells resulted in the dissociation of C protein from LDs and a 50-fold inhibition of infectious virus production but not of RNA replication, indicating a biological relevance for the potassium-dependent interaction. Limited proteolysis of the LD surface impaired the

C protein-LD interaction, and force measurements in the presence of specific antibodies indicated that perilipin 3 (TIP47) is the major DEW C protein ligand on the surface of LDs.”
“Depression and impaired quality Of life (QOL) are frequently observed in patients suffering from a variety of diseases. In addition, it has been reported that an enhanced degradation of the serotonin precursor tryptophan may contribute to QOL deterioration in some diseases. However, it is unclear whether the correlation between the QOL scores and the central serotonergic tone is only mediated by the severity of either the depression symptoms or the physical illness itself.

The next present study examined the relationship between serotonin transporter (SERT) availability and life quality as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life brief version questionnaire (WHO-QOL) in healthy participants in order to exclude the influence of depressive mood and disease. The SERT availability in the midbrain was approximated using SPECT with [(123)I] ADAM ligand in fifty-eight healthy volunteers. The overall rating sub scores of the WHO-QOL correlated positively with serotonin transporter availability in the males. Central serotoninergic activity may play a role in the overall rating scores of the WHO-QOL. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Unwanted memories, such as emotionally negative, can be intentionally suppressed through voluntary control in humans. Memory suppression is thought to be mediated by the interplay of a chain of neurocognitive processes. However, empirical data in support of this notion is lacking.

To evaluate the site of action cerebral infarcted rats underwent

To evaluate the site of action cerebral infarcted rats underwent single intracerebroventricular or intrathecal administration of FYO-750. RepSox datasheet To evaluate the mechanism of action FYO-750 was intravenously administered in diuretic rats or cerebral infarcted rats pretreated

with resiniferatoxin.

Results: For cumulative administration SC-560 (0.3 mg/kg), rofecoxib (0.3 mg/kg) and FYO-750 (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) significantly increased bladder capacity. For single administration neither SC-560 (0.03 mg/kg) nor rofecoxib (0.03 mg/kg) affected bladder capacity but SC-560 plus rofecoxib significantly increased bladder capacity vs vehicle. Intracerebroventricular and intrathecal administration of FYO-750 did not affect bladder capacity. FYO-750 did not affect urinary production in diuretic rats and the effects of FYO-750 were blocked by resiniferatoxin except at the highest drug dose.

Conclusions: Results indicate that cyclooxygenase inhibitors improve detrusor overactivity caused by cerebral

infarction by suppressing peripheral C fiber’s without affecting urinary production. The nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor showed more potent efficiency than the selective cyclooxygenase-1 or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor alone.”
“BACKGROUND: The reported cumulative risk of post-angiographic obliteration (post-AO) hemorrhage from learn more arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) over 10 years is 2.2%.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the warning signs of post-AO hemorrhage by analyzing the characteristics of enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of AVMs with post-AO hemorrhage.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 121 patients whose AVMs were angiographically obliterated within 5 years of GKRS without hemorrhage and who received at least 1 contrast-enhanced MRI after GKRS (group 1), and 7 patients who experienced post-AO hemorrhage (group 2). We analyzed the enhancement persistence ratio (the percentage of AVMs with persisting enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image after obliteration) and the change in size of the enhanced region over time in each patient.

RESULTS: The enhancement persistence ratio showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (89.4% vs 100% for groups 1 and 2, respectively; P = .401). While most cases in group 1 showed a tendency to decrease in size and gradually stabilize following GKRS, there were significantly more cases in group 2 with obvious increment of the enhanced regions within 1 year of angiographic obliteration compared with the previous measurement (4.96% vs 71.

The order of the 2 tests was manipulated, with half of the partic

The order of the 2 tests was manipulated, with half of the participants in each age group receiving the easy test find more first and half receiving the hard test first.

When the easy test preceded the hard test, participants in both age groups adopted a more stringent

response criterion on the harder test. When the hard test preceded the easy test, no criterion shift was seen in either age group.

These results suggest that older adults have preserved metacognitive abilities with regard to assessing the consequences for accuracy of maintaining a lenient criterion when discrimination between experienced and new information becomes more difficult and further suggests that they can take appropriate action to control error rates under these conditions.”
“The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals contains the major endogenous dopamine-producing system in the fore-brain. The vast majority of dopaminergic neurons consists of juxtaglomerular cells, which innervate the olfactory glomeruli and modulate the Cyclopamine research buy entrance of sensory information to the

OB. Although dopaminergic juxtaglomerular cells have been widely investigated, the presence of dopaminergic interneurons other than juxtaglomerular cells has been largely unexplored. In this study, we analyze a population of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing interneurons located in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the rat OB. These interneurons are GABAergic and morphologically heterogeneous. They have an axon and two to four dendrites running throughout the EPL. Frequently, they have appendages similar to spines in the dendrites and, sometimes, the distal portions of the dendritic branches show enlargements or swellings similar to varicosities. Contrary to other interneurons of the EPL, the TH-containing ones do not form dendro-dendritic synapses on principal cells and do not receive dendro-dendritic synapses from them. In fact, no synapses were found

from the dendrites of these interneurons. When their dendrites are involved in synaptic contacts, they are always the postsynaptic element. They receive symmetrical and asymmetrical Pazopanib synapses from GABAergic and non-GABAergic axons of unidentified origin. Our data indicate that the local circuits of the EPL are more complex than previously thought. Although most of the interneurons of this layer establish dendro-dendritic synaptic relationships with principal cells, the TH-containing interneurons constitute an exception to this rule, resembling interneurons from other cortical areas. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may contribute to the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

In this study we examined whether delivery of carbon monoxide to

In this study we examined whether delivery of carbon monoxide to lung grafts in the preservation solution could protect against lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Methods: Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in syngeneic Lewis to Lewis rats. Grafts were preserved in University of Wisconsin solution with or without (control solution) carbon monoxide at 4 degrees C for 6 hours. Carbon monoxide gas (5% or 100%) was bubbled into University of Wisconsin solution at 4 degrees C for 5 minutes before use.

Results: In control animals, ischemia-reperfusion injury resulted in significant deterioration of graft function and was associated with a massive cellular infiltrate

2 hours after reperfusion. Grafts Vadimezan supplier stored in University of Wisconsin solution with

carbon monoxide (5%), however, demonstrated significantly Selleck Caspase Inhibitor VI better gas exchange and significantly reduced intragraft inflammation (reduced inflammatory mediators and cellular infiltrate). Experiments demonstrated that the protective effects afforded by 100% University of Wisconsin solution with carbon monoxide were not as potent as those of 5% University of Wisconsin solution with carbon monoxide.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that 5% carbon monoxide as an additive to the cold flush/preservation solution can impart potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects after cold preservation and transplantation of lung grafts. Such ex vivo treatment

of lung grafts with carbon monoxide can minimize concerns associated with carbon monoxide inhalation and might offer the opportunity to significantly advance the application of carbon monoxide in the clinical setting.”
“Sensory gating can be assessed in rodents and humans using an auditory conditioning (C)-test (T) paradigm, with schizophrenic patients exhibiting a loss of gating. Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We studied auditory gating and the effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-22 on gating in CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male Lister hooded rats using in vivo electrophysiology. The effects of a single dose of WIN55,212-2 on the N2 local field potential (LFP) test/conditioning amplitude Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II ratios (T/C ratio) and response latencies were examined. In rats that demonstrated gating of N2, mPFC showed higher T/C ratios and shorter conditioning response latencies compared to DG and CA3. WIN55,212-2 disrupted auditory gating in all three areas with a significant increase in test amplitudes in the gating rats. A group of non-gating rats demonstrated higher test amplitudes and higher T/C ratios compared to gating rats. WIN55,212-2 had no effect on T/C ratios in the non-gating rats. The cannabinoid receptor (CBI) antagonist SR141716A prevented WIN55,212-2 induced disruption of gating.

Considering that calcium-binding proteins have reported effects o

Considering that calcium-binding proteins have reported effects on the maturation of some brain areas, and on the sexual differentiation of mammalian brain areas by affecting cell survival rates, our study suggests that PV may be involved in the functional maturation of neurons in song nuclei or the sexual differentiation of song system (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland MS-275 mouse Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved”
“Herpes simplex

virus (HSV) entry into cells requires four membrane glycoproteins: gD is the receptor binding protein, and gB and gH/gL constitute the core fusion machinery. Crystal structures of gD and its receptors have provided a basis for understanding the initial triggering steps, but how the core fusion proteins

function remains unknown. The gB crystal structure shows that it is a class III fusion protein, yet unlike other class members, gB itself does not cause fusion. Bimolecular complementation (BiMC) studies have shown that gD-receptor binding triggers an interaction selleck products between gB and gH/gL and concurrently triggers fusion. Left unanswered was whether BiMC led to fusion or was a Casein kinase 1 by-product of it. We used gB monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to block different aspects of these events. Non-virus-neutralizing MAbs to gB failed to block BiMC or fusion. In contrast, gB MAbs that neutralize virus blocked fusion. These MAbs map to three functional regions (FR) of gB. MAbs to FR1, which contains the fusion loops, and FR2 blocked both BiMC and fusion. In contrast, MAbs to FR3, a region involved in receptor binding, blocked fusion but not BiMC. Thus, FR3 MAbs separate

the BiMC interaction from fusion, suggesting that BiMC occurs prior to fusion. When substituted for wild-type (wt) gB, fusion loop mutants blocked fusion and BiMC, suggesting that loop insertion precedes BiMC. Thus, we postulate that each of the gB FRs are involved in different aspects of the path leading to fusion. Upon triggering by gD, gB fusion loops are inserted into target lipid membranes. gB then interacts with gH/gL, and this interaction is eventually followed by fusion.”
“Hexafins are recently identified low-molecular-weight peptide agonists of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), derived from the beta 6-beta 7 loop region of various FGFs.