“Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a practice-based, culturally appropriate patient education intervention on blood pressure (BP) and treatment adherence among patients of African origin with uncontrolled hypertension. Methods: Cluster randomised trial involving four Dutch primary care centres buy ZD1839 and 146 patients (intervention n = 75, control n = 71), who met the following inclusion criteria: self-identified Surinamese or Ghanaian; bigger than = 20 years; treated for hypertension; SBP bigger than = 140 mmHg. All patients received usual hypertension
care. The intervention-group was also offered three nurse-led, culturally appropriate hypertension education sessions. BP was assessed with Omron 705-IT and treatment adherence with lifestyle-and medication adherence scales. Results: 139 patients (95%) completed the study (intervention n = 71, control n = 68). Baseline characteristics were largely similar for both groups.
At six months, we observed a SBP reduction of bigger than = 10 mmHg -primary outcome-in 48% of the intervention group and 43% of the control group. When adjusted for pre-specified covariates age, sex, hypertension duration, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html education, baseline measurement and clustering effect, the between-group difference was not significant (OR; 0.42; 95% CI: 0.11 to 1.54; P = 0.19). At six months, the mean SBP/DBD had dropped by 10/5.7 (SD 14.3/9.2) mmHg in the intervention group and by 6.3/1.7 (SD 13.4/8.6) mmHg in the control group. After adjustment, between-group differences in SBP and DBP reduction were -1.69 mmHg (95% CI: -6.01 to 2.62, P = 0.44) and -3.01 mmHg (-5.73 to -0.30, Dactolisib ic50 P = 0.03) in favour of the intervention group. Mean scores for adherence to lifestyle recommendations increased in the intervention group, but decreased in the control group. Mean medication adherence scores improved slightly in both groups. After adjustment, the
between-group difference for adherence to lifestyle recommendations was 0.34 (0.12 to 0.55; P = 0.003). For medication adherence it was -0.09 (-0.65 to 0.46; P = 0.74). Conclusion: This intervention led to significant improvements in DBP and adherence to lifestyle recommendations, supporting the need for culturally appropriate hypertension care.”
“Background Little is known about the neighbourhood characteristics of workplaces, the extent to which they are independently and synergistically correlated with residential environments, and their impact on health. Methods This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between home and workplace neighbourhood environments with body mass index (BMI) in 1503 working participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with mean age 59.6 (SD=7.4).
Four gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant cell lines were used in the present work. Growth inhibition was determined using the MTT assay. Transgenic mice carrying the EGFR L858R mutation were treated with everolimus (10 mg/kg/day), or vehicle alone, from 5 to 20 weeks of age, and were then sacrificed. To evaluate the efficacy of everolimus in prolonging survival, everolimus (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered from 5 weeks of age. The four cell lines were similarly sensitive to everolimus. Expression of phosphorylated (p) mTOR and pS6 were suppressed upon treatment with everolimus in vitro, whereas the pAKT level increased.
3-deazaneplanocin A The numbers of lung tumors with a long axis exceeding 1 mm in the everolimus-treated and control groups were 1.9 +/- 0.9 and 9.4 +/- 3.2 (t-test, p smaller than 0.001), respectively. pS6 was suppressed during everolimus treatment. Although apoptosis and autophagy were not induced in everolimus-treated EGFR transgenic mice, angiogenesis was suppressed. The median survival time in the everolimus-treated group (58.0 weeks) was significantly longer than that in the control group (31.2 weeks) (logrank test, p smaller than 0.001). These findings suggest that everolimus had an indirect effect on tumor formation by inhibiting angiogenesis and might be effective to treat lung tumors induced
by an activating EGFR gene mutation. C59 (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective Characterization of intermediate-high risk adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is important because biopsy or surgery should be performed to confirm the malignancy. We investigated which parameters of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) had an additive role in distinguishing malignancies in patients with incidental adrenal masses of intermediate-high risk. Methods From January 2008 to July 2013, 52
patients with a pathologically proven diagnosis of AI were retrospectively enrolled (age=56.4 +/- 12.7 years, M : F=34 : 18; benign : malignant=14 : 38). Volumetric parameters were size and Galardin ic50 volume according to combined CT, and metabolic parameters were peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak), maximum SUV (SUVmax), mean SUV (SUVmean), and tumor-to-background ratio (SUVmax of adrenal mass/SUVmean of liver). Metabolovolumetric parameters of metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG, SUV(mean)xmetabolic tumor volume) were also included and compared with the diagnostic value. In addition, the highest diagnostic parameters among volumetric and metabolic parameters were combined and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Results Compared with benign adrenal adenoma, malignant lesions showed significantly higher values of all F-18-FDG PET/CT volumetric, metabolic, and metabolovolumetric parameters. Size showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.759 among the volumetric parameters, and SUVpeak showed the highest AUC of 0.853 among the metabolic parameters.
The Complement And Reduction of INfarct size after Angioplasty or Lytics trials of pexelizumab used selleck chemicals llc creatine kinase
(CK)-MB area under the curve to determine infarct size in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or fibrinolysis.\n\nMethods Prediction of infarct size was carried out by measuring CK-MB area under the curve in patients with ST-segment elevation MI treated with reperfusion therapy from January 2000 to April 2002. Infarct size was calculated in 1622 patients (PCI=817; fibrinolysis=805). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between baseline demographics, total ST-segment elevation, index angiographic findings (PCI group), and binary outcome of CK-MB area
under the curve greater than 3000 ng/ml.\n\nResults Large infarcts occurred in AZD9291 inhibitor 63% (515) of the PCI group and 69% (554) of the fibrinolysis group. Independent predictors of large infarcts differed depending on mode of reperfusion. In PCI, male sex, no prior coronary revascularization and diabetes, decreased systolic blood pressure, sum of ST-segment elevation, total (angiographic) occlusion, and nonright coronary artery culprit artery were independent predictors of larger infarcts (C index=0.73). In fibrinolysis, younger age, decreased heart rate, white race, no history of arrhythmia, increased time to fibrinolytic therapy in patients treated up to 2 h after symptom onset, and sum of ST-segment elevation were independently associated with a larger infarct size (C index=0.68).\n\nConclusion Clinical and patient data can be used to predict larger infarcts on the basis of CK-MB quantification. These models may be helpful in designing future trials and in guiding
the use of novel pharmacotherapies aimed at limiting infarct size in clinical practice. Coron Artery Dis 23:118-125 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“During and immediately after the recent recession, national health expenditures CX-6258 grew exceptionally slowly. During 2009-11 per capita national health spending grew about 3 percent annually, compared to an average of 5.9 percent annually during the previous ten years. Policy experts disagree about whether the slower health spending growth was temporary or represented a long-term shift. This study examined two factors that might account for the slowdown: job loss and benefit changes that shifted more costs to insured people. Based on an examination of data covering more than ten million enrollees with health care coverage from large firms in 2007-11, we found that these enrollees’ out-of-pocket costs increased as the benefit design of their employer-provided coverage became less generous in this period. We conclude that such benefit design changes accounted for about one-fifth of the observed decrease in the rate of growth.
1 +/- 19.5% of control in scAT, P < 0.01, and 246.6 +/- 50.2% of control in vAT P < 0.01) and smaller adipocytes (78.3 +/- 1.7% of control in scAT, P < 0.001, and 87.9 +/- 3.2% of control in vAT, P < 0.05). GT also increased the number of apoptotic cells in vAT (320.4 +/- 21.9% of control, P < 0.001). These results suggest new mechanisms for GT on body weight and highlight its potential
benefit to prevent or treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome. J. Nutr. 138: 2156-2163, 2008.”
“Introduction. – Whether post-traumatic focal fixed dystonia has a physiological or psychologically-mediated mechanism is discussed.\n\nCase report. – We report the case of an active 22-year-old soldier with shoulder-fixed dystonia, eight months after a fall with minor right-acromioclavicular sprain.\n\nConclusion. – Psychiatric examination and search of complex regional pain syndrome, radicular or buy RG-7112 accessory nerve damage, and genetic predisposition to dystonia are necessary Anti-infection Compound Library purchase for selecting a difficult treatment in these patients. (C) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A transferase was isolated, purified
and characterised from Aspergillus aculeatus. The enzyme exhibited a pH and temperature optima of 6.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively and under such conditions remained stable with no decrease in activity after 5 h. The enzyme was purified 7.1 fold with a yield of 22.3% and specific activity of 486.1 U mg(-1) after dialysis. concentration
with polyethyleneglycol (30%) and DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. It was monomeric with a molecular mass of 85 kDa and K(m) and V(max) values of 272.3 mM and 166.7 pmol min(-1) ml(-1). The influence of pH, temperature, reaction time, and enzyme and sucrose concentration on the formation of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was examined by statistical response surface methodology (RSM). The enzyme showed both transfructosylation and hydrolytic activity with the transfructosylation ratio increasing to 88% at a sucrose concentration of 600 mg ml(-1). Sucrose concentration (400 mg ml(-1)) temperature (60 C), and pH (5.6) favoured the synthesis of high levels of GF(3) and GF(4). Incubation time had a critical CP-868596 cell line effect on the yield of FOS as the major products were GF(2) after 4 h and GF4 after 8 h. A prolonged incubation of 16 h resulted in the conversion of GF(4) into GF(2) as a result of self hydrolase activity. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose Inflammatory mediators, including chemokines, may play crucial roles in the development of endometriosis. Therefore, we investigated the expression and localization of CXCL16 and its receptor, CXCR6, in ovarian endometriotic tissues. We also examined whether CXCL16 induces IL-8 production in endometriotic stromal cells.\n\nMethods We performed immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of in vivo and in vitro samples. IL-8 production was assayed using an ELISA.
Radiolabeled and fluorescently labeled paclitaxel demonstrated a significant increase in tumor uptake after ABT-510 treatment. Combined treatment with ABT-510 and cisplatin or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in tumor cell and tumor endothelial cell apoptosis and a resultant decrease in ovarian tumor size. Combined treatment also regressed secondary lesions and eliminated the presence of abdominal ascites. The results from this study show that through vessel normalization, ABT-510 increases uptake of chemotherapy drugs and can induce regression of advanced ovarian cancer.”
We summarized all published studies for endovascular stent graft placement among patients with type B aortic dissection in China with respect to clinical success, complications, and outcomes.\n\nMethods: A meta-analysis was performed on all published studies of retrograde JNK-IN-8 research buy endovascular stent graft placement encompassing 3 GW786034 cell line or more patients with type B aortic
dissection. Thirty-nine studies, involving a total of 1304 patients from January 2001 to December 2007, were included.\n\nResults: The average patient age was 52 years. Procedural success was reported in 99.2% +/- 0.1% of patients. Major complications were reported in 3.4% +/- 0.1% patients, with the most severe neurologic complications in 0.6%. Periprocedural stroke was encountered more frequently than paraplegia (0.2% vs 0%). The overall 30-day mortality was 2.6% +/- 0.1%. In addition, 1.5% +/- 0.1% of patients died over a mean follow-up period of 27.1 +/- 17.5 months. Life-table analysis yielded overall survival rates of 96.9% at 30 days, 96.7% at 6 months, 96.4% at 1 year, 95.6% at 2 years, and 95.2% at 5 years.\n\nConclusion: Although therapy with traditional medicines still remains the first line of treatment
for type B aortic dissection, endovascular stent graft placement has shown its advantages, with a success rate of 99% or greater in a select cohort. The technical survival rate, major complications, and acute small molecule library screening and midterm survival rates in the Chinese-language literature appeared to favorably compare with that seen in published literature. This analysis is the first to provide an overview of the currently available literature on endovascular stent graft placement in type B aortic dissection in China.”
“Guidelines from the ESC and ACC/AHA recommend implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) be implanted in clinically indicated patients with a reasonable expectation of 1 year survival. Our study aimed to assess if selected clinical markers of organ dysfunction were associated with increased 1-year mortality despite ICD therapy.\n\nWe retrospectively studied 283 patients with de novo ICDs implanted for primary or secondary prevention in ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy.
The frequency of juvenile breeders was 2.0%, the mean age at first breeding being 3.7 calendar years for males and 4.0 cy for females. The territorial fidelity was at least 3.4 years for males and 3.7 years for females. Females dispersed on average 80.5 km and males 51.8 km during their pre- breeding
movements, whilst distance between birthplace and breeding territories was on average 108.5 km for females and 64.5 km for males. We studied the relationships between adult turnover, recruitment age, territorial fidelity and dispersal in a healthy population in order to establish population dynamics. A combination MK-2206 in vivo of these parameters, not just age at first breeding, could be used as a potential early warning signal indicating future changes, prompting their consequences to be evaluated. This approach could lead to the reclassification of the large-scale health of a population. Its utilization would allow resources to be directed into helping “ailing” subpopulations, detecting causes of decline, and developing adequate recovery strategies.”
“Objective Little is known about perioperative outcomes among the subset of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis selleck screening library (RA) rather
than osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to 1) identify the prevalence of RA in patients undergoing THA, 2) compare their demographics to those being operated on for OA, 3) determine differences in perioperative outcomes and 4) analyse if RA represents an independent risk factor for complications,
mortality, utilisation of resources, increased length of stay and cost. Methods Entries of patients who underwent elective THA between 2006 and 2010 were identified in a national database and subgrouped according to presence of a concurrent diagnosis of RA. Differences in demographics and perioperative outcomes were analysed. Results We identified 157,775 entries for patients who underwent THA between 2006 and 2010. RA was present in 3.42% (n=5,400). Patients in the group RA were on average younger [RA: 63.94 years vs. OA: 65.64 years; p smaller than 0.0001] and more likely female [RA: 75.47% vs. OA: 56.09%; p smaller than 0.0001. While mortality was not statistically different, perioperative pulmonary and infectious complications occurred more frequently in RA selleck products patients. Compared with OA, multivariate logistic regression revealed higher overall odds for complications [OR=1.15 (CI 1.05;1.25), p=0.0037], need for mechanical ventilation [OR=1.42 (CI 1.01;2.00), p=0.0414], transfusion [OR=1.35 (CI 1.26;1.44), p smaller than 0.0001], prolonged hospitalisation [OR=1.16 (CI 1.08;1.23), p smaller than 0.0001] and increased hospital charges [OR= 1.17 (CI 1.09;1.26), p smaller than 0.0001]. Conclusion In THA patients suffering from RA, perioperative risk for complications and utilization of health care resources continues to be increased compared to OA patients.
“Background: Olfaction has been demonstrated to have a great impact on patients’ lives. Transsphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery is associated with potentially significant damage to olfactory tissues, but to date this issue has been only poorly documented in the literature.\n\nStudy Design: Prospective cohort study comparing olfactory outcomes pre- and postpituitary surgery.\n\nMethod: Patients were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) preoperatively and again at 6 months postoperatively. The endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery was carried out using a full middle
turbinate GSK621 in vitro preservation protocol. A Hadad-Bassagasteguy (HB) vascularized septal flap was raised in each case. Secondary outcomes included Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores (LKES) and patient self-report of olfactory disturbance.
The results were analysed using a paired t-tests.\n\nResults: Seventeen patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Mean preoperative UPSIT value was 37.2 (normosmia), and mean postoperative UPSIT value was 30.8 (moderate hyposmia) (P < .001). All patients were fully healed with normal LKES scores by 6 months. All patients complained of their olfactory dysfunction.\n\nConclusions: STAT inhibitor This study is the first to describe postoperative olfactory perturbations suffered by patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. We hypothesize that olfactory impairment results from use of the HB flap. We recommend that the possibility of permanent olfactory changes be added to routine patient counseling and consent for this procedure, and that HB flaps be raised judiciously during trannssphenoidal endoscopic procedures.”
“Background: Eosinophils are important effector cells in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. Oxidative stress in the form of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the
pathogenesis of several allergic diseases. Recently, it has become evident that mitochondrial-derived ROS are important transducers of apoptosis and intracellular signaling. In this study, we investigated the see more role of mitochondrial ROS in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-3 in human eosinophils stimulated with H(2)O(2).\n\nMethods: Human eosinophils were purified using immunomagnetic negative selection and then stimulated with H(2)O(2), H(2)O(2)-induced eosinophil apoptosis was measured by staining cells with annexin V. Activation of ERK1/2 MAPK and caspases was assessed by Western blotting. Eosinophils were pretreated with rotenone, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, before H(2)O(2) was added.\n\nResults: Treatment with 1 mM H(2)O(2) induced externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and activation of caspases in eosinophils.
While generalists were always abundant, numerous specialists that were either rare or absent in most samples, increased in abundance for short periods, appearing to be overall abundant. Statistical and network analyses showed that the protistan
seasonal organization was influenced by environmental parameters. It also highlighted that in addition to grazers, fungi and parasites played potentially significant roles during phytoplankton blooms. Overall, while the protistan succession was mainly GNS-1480 purchase shaped by environmental variations, biotic interactions among co-occurring taxa were the main structural drivers of the temporal assemblages.”
“Background:\n\nChronic alcohol-dependent patients (ALC) exhibit neurocognitive impairments attributed to alcohol-induced fronto-cerebellar damage. Deficits are typically found in complex task performance, whereas simple tasks may not be significantly compromised, perhaps because
of little understood compensatory changes.\n\nMethods:\n\nWe compared finger tapping with either hand at externally paced (EP) or Sapitinib ic50 maximal self-paced (SP) rates and concomitant brain activation in ten pairs of right-hand dominant, age-, and gender-matched, severe, uncomplicated ALC and normal controls (NC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).\n\nResults:\n\nMean tapping rates were not significantly different in ALC and NC for either task, but SP tapping variances were greater in ALC for both hands. SP tapping was more rapid with dominant hand (DH) than non-dominant hand (NDH) for both groups. EP and SP tapping with the non-dominant hand demonstrated significantly more activation in ALC than NC in the pre and postcentral gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and the middle temporal gyrus. Areas activated only by ALC (not at all by NC) during NDH tapping included the inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. There were no significant group activation differences with DH tapping. No brain regions activated more in NC than ALC. SP tapping in contrast to EP activated fronto-cerebellar
networks in NC, including postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, and the anterior lobe and vermis of the cerebellum, but only parietal precuneus in ALC.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThese Nepicastat findings with NDH finger tapping support previous reports of neurocognitive inefficiencies in ALC. Inferior frontal activation with EP in ALC, but not in NC, suggests engagement of regions needed for planning, organization, and impulse regulation; greater contralateral parietal lobe activation with SP in ALC may reflect right hemispheric impairments in visuospatial performance. Contrasting brain activation during SP and EP suggests that ALC may not have enlisted a fronto-cerebellar network as did NC but rather employed a higher order planning mode by recruiting parietal lobe functions to attain normal mean finger tapping rates.
Of the included patients, 199 women received antibiotic-only treatment, and 41 received additional image-guided drainage. There was
no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, parity, incidence of diabetes, obesity, endometriosis, or history of sexually transmitted infection excluding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Abscesses in the drainage cohort were noted to be larger in dimension (5.9 cm vs. 8.5 click here cm); 16.1% of patients who received antibiotics alone required surgical intervention versus only 2.4% of the drainage cohort. Patients who received drainage had longer hospital stays, but the time from treatment to discharge was similar in both groups (7.4 days vs. 6.7 days). We successfully contacted
150 patients, and the differences in long-term pregnancy outcomes, pain, or infertility were not statistically significant. Conclusion(s): Patients who received antibiotics alone were more likely to require further surgical intervention when compared with patients who additionally received image-guided drainage. There were no observable long-term differences. (C) 2014 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.”
“Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by Selleck GDC-0068 hormones but also interact with many humanderived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA two more ers (er alpha 2 and er beta 2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Morrum, Erastin price Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for er alpha 2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the er alpha 1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Morrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression
level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Morrum. The er alpha 2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Morrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon’s lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
While the small cross-section of the mandibular condyle imparts a particular vulnerability to injury, fractures of the angle, body, or symphyseal regions are find more associated with greater force and the potential for more complex injury. In conjunction with their video presentation, the authors discuss their approach to miniplate fixation of a symphyseal fracture. ( Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123: 691, 2009.)”
“By investigating angular dependence of resistance and applying the Boltzmann distribution to the anisotropy dispersion of the magnetization in an exchange-biased pinned layer, we quantized the intrinsic
anisotropy dispersion sigma(gamma) of spin valves. The sigma(gamma) was estimated to be 0.412 degrees for the as-deposited spin valve and 0.183 degrees for the ion-irradiated spin valve. This indicates that the dispersion indeed narrowed when the spin valve was field-annealed or irradiated by 550 eV hydrogen ions under a magnetic field, which is consistent with our previous attribution to the significant improvement in both exchange anisotropy and giant magnetoresistance of spin valves thus treated. Our methodology can be applied
for other spin devices characterized by angular dependence of resistance to determine useful device properties such TPX-0005 as the intrinsic anisotropy dispersion and the exchange bias of the exchange-biased reference layer. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. www.selleckchem.com/products/lazertinib-yh25448-gns-1480.html [DOI: 10.1063/1.3072776]“
“P>This Mycosphaerella graminicola pathogen profile covers recent advances in the knowledge of this ascomycete fungus and of the disease it causes, septoria tritici blotch of wheat. Research on this pathogen has accelerated since publication of a previous pathogen profile in this journal in 2002. Septoria tritici blotch
continues to have high economic importance and widespread global impact on wheat production.\n\nTaxonomy:\n\nMycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schrot. In Cohn (anamorph: Septoria tritici Roberge in Desmaz.). Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Loculoascomycetes (filamentous ascomycetes), Order Dothideales, Genus Mycosphaerella, Species graminicola.\n\nHost range:\n\nBread and durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. turgidum ssp. durum L.).\n\nDisease symptoms:\n\nInitially leaves develop a chlorotic flecking, which is followed by the development of necrotic lesions which contain brown-black pycnidia. Necrosis causes a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and therefore affects grain yield.\n\nDisease control:\n\nThe disease is primarily controlled by a combination of resistant cultivars and fungicides. Rapid advances in disease control, especially in resistance breeding, are opening up new opportunities for the management of the disease.\n\nUseful websites:\n\nhttp://genome.jgi-psf.org/Mycgr3/Mycgr3.home.html.