e , qP and qL) decreased gradually (Fig  1): sun

e., qP and qL) decreased gradually (Fig. 1): sun plants had higher values (about twofold) than in those kept in the shade (for definition of individual ChlF buy Palbociclib parameters see Tables 1, 2). Significant rise of electron transport rate (ETR) across PSII, as calculated from fluorescence data, was found in plants grown under HL (up to ~1,800 μmol photons m−2 s−1), while it was very low in the case of shade plants and did not change at higher light intensities (Fig. 1b). In these plants,

thermal dissipation of excitation energy, as expressed by non-photochemical quenching of ChlF (NPQ) and of quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ), showed similar trends to that shown by calculated ETR, but more JQ-EZ-05 in vitro energy was dissipated as heat between ~390 and ~1,160 μmol photons m−2 s−1 of light intensity (Fig. 1d, f). Data shown in subfigures a, c, and e of Fig. 1 will be discussed later. Fig. 1 Chlorophyll

a fluorescence parameters derived from the rapid light curves (at 0, 152, 246, 389, 554, 845, 1164, 1795, and 2629 μmol photons m−2 s−1, 15 s). a The photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), b electron transport rate (ETR, inferred from fluorescence measurements after correction for different leaf absorbances, and assuming that PSII:PSI ratio is 1:1; Genty et al. 1989). c Photochemical quenching (qP) based on the Epigenetic Reader Domain inhibitor Tangeritin “puddle” model (connectivity parameter (p) between different PSIIs = zero). d Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), e photochemical quenching (qP) based on the “lake” model [connectivity parameter (p) between PSII units = 1]. f Quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ). Measurements were performed on penultimate leaves of spring barley plants acclimated to different light intensities (open circle sun leaf—100 % of daylight, filled circle shade leaf—13 % of daylight, their entire growth period). Mean values ± SE from 4 replicates In shade plants, compared to sun plants, fast ChlF induction curve (the OJIP curve; see reviews: Stirbet and Govindjee 2011,

2012) showed no significant differences in F 0 and F m values and hence, the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry ΦPo was almost unaffected by the leaf ambient light environment. However, the shape of fast ChlF induction (Fig. 2a) was not identical in sun and shade leaves suggesting possible differences in energy fluxes at the donor as well as at the acceptor side of PSII (Strasser et al. 2000); this conclusion is supported by the calculated ChlF parameters (Table 4). Fig. 2 a Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curves at 3,500 μmol photons m−2 s−1 of continuous red light up to 1 s for the sun and the shade leaves. Dark adaptation was for 30 min (for other details, see the legend of Fig. 1).

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