In the latter case, there is a need for an emergency-adaptive, re

In the latter case, there is a need for an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust message delivery toward the sink. For example, a fire-fighter relies on timely temperature updates to remain aware of current fire conditions. In addition, as the fire spreads throughout the building, it becomes inhibitor DAPT secretase likely that the sensing devices may become disconnected Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from the network or indeed be destroyed, so the network routes have to be changed or re-discovered to adapt to these emergency conditions in order for the network to continue operating. Most existing routing protocols consider the energy efficiency and lifetime of the networks as the foremost design factor. The routing mechanisms used in general wireless sensor networks and even routing for forest fire applications are not well suited for in-building disaster situations, where timeliness and reliability are much more critical.

For forest fires the focus is on tracking of fires, rather than Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries evacuation or guidance of fire personnel. This combination of real-time requirements coupled with dynamic network topology in a critical application scenario provides the motivation for our research. In this paper, we propose an emergency-adaptive routing mechanism (EAR) designed especially for building fire emergencies using wireless sensor networks (WSN), which provides timely and robust data reporting to a sink. We do not need to know the exact localization of each sensor and also no time synchronization is needed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a real-time and robust routing mechanism adaptive to building fire emergency using WSNs Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries has been proposed.

Also, this protocol could be easily Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries used in other similar emergency applications.Section 2 presents the related work. In Section 3 we outline the routing problem. We present an emergency-adaptive routing mechanism in Section 4. In Section 5, we present a preliminary analysis. In Section 6, we give ns2 simulation results. Finally, Section 7 concludes this paper.2.?Background and Related WorkMost routing protocols for WSNs focus on energy efficiency and link node lifetime related explicitly to its energy resources, i.e., a node is assumed to fail when the battery is depleted. Some WSN applications require real-time communication, typically for timely surveillance Batimastat or tracking. Real-time routing protocols in WSNs are not new.

For example, SPEED [1], MM-SPEED [2], RPAR [3] and selleck chem RTLD [4] were all designed for real-time applications with explicit delay requirements. He et al. [1] proposed an outstanding real-time communication protocol binding the end-to-end communication delay by enforcing a uniform delivery velocity. Felemban et al. proposed [2] a novel packet delivery mechanism called MMSPEED for probabilistic QoS guarantee. Chipara et al. proposed [3] a real-time power aware routing protocol by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions.

3 1 Mixture proportions of the cement mortarTo evaluate the elec

3.1. Mixture proportions of the cement mortarTo evaluate the electrical resistance and the polarization resistance measured by the sensor in chloride-contaminated cement mortar, different cement chloride contents were obtained by dissolving NaCl in water (see Table 3). Two specimens and sensors were used for each mixture proportion inhibitor price (A to D).Table 3.Mi
Intelligent robotics, as defined by Lopez-Juarez, et al. [1], demands the integration of smart sensors [2,3] that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Communication and data processing functionalities are two of the most important features in smart sensors [3], but data fusion is also desirable.

Industrial manipulator robots require constant monitoring of several variables and their fusion [4�C6] such as: motion dynamics, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries inclination, and vibration; Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries these variables inform about the machine wellness, highlighting the necessity of a specialized Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries smart sensor that provides sufficient information to evaluate the robot performance. This work is focused on the extraction of several parameters from the mentioned physical variables, related to a single axis industrial robot arm. Motion dynamics is defined as the time-dependent profiles for position, velocity, acceleration, and jerk [7] in a servomotor, and determines the motion trajectory of a single axis robotic arm to reach a specific position and orientation based on a motion controller that uses these profiles as reference. On the other hand, the robot inclination is related to the spatial orientation of the physical sensor, where angular position, velocity, and acceleration on each robot link can be inferred.

In addition, during the arm motion, vibrations are generated mainly due to friction, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries gearing, joint wear, etc.; these vibrations are undesired movements that reflect potential failures or improper Dacomitinib operating conditions, making necessary their continuous monitoring to detect possible problems. Summarizing, it is desirable to have a single system able to provide all the aforementioned parameters from each robot link.Current literature points out that the encoder in servomotors [4,8�C10] and the accelerometer [11�C14] are two of the most widely used sensors to monitor motion dynamics and vibrations on computerized numeric control (CNC) machines and robotic manipulator arms.

Conversely, in industry, automation demands the integration of smart sensors [2,3] and control drivers in an open-architecture fashion [1,15]. Motion dynamics has been estimated from an incremental optical encoder in [9,10] where position, velocity, acceleration, and jerk parameters are successfully meantime obtained, but they do not present the information of vibrations nor inclination. The use of accelerometers is well established to obtain kinematics parameters [8,16�C18] or to measure vibrations [19], but there are no reported works that cover a broad parameter spectrum.

Finally, we conclude in Section 6 2 ?Related WorksTo transmit

Finally, we conclude in Section 6.2.?Related WorksTo transmit selleck products data Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries efficiently over wireless channels, existing schemes set some minimum transmission power for maintaining reliability. These schemes either decrease the interference among the nodes or the unnecessary energy consumption. In order to adjust the transmission power, a reference node periodically broadcasts a beacon message. When neighbor nodes hear a beacon message from a reference node, neighbor nodes transmit an ACK message. Through this interaction, a reference node can estimate the connectivity between the neighbor nodes.In a Local Mean Algorithm (LMA) [5], a reference node broadcasts the ��LifeMsg�� message. The neighbor nodes transmit the ��LifeAckMsg�� after they receive ��LifeMsg��.

Reference nodes count the number of ��LifeAckMsgs�� Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and the transmission power is controlled by maintaining appropriate connectivity. For example, if the number of ��LifeAckMsgs�� is less than ��NodeMinThresh,�� the transmission power is increased. In contrast, if the number of ��LifeAckMsgs�� is more than ��NodeMaxThresh,�� the transmission power is decreased. As a result, they can provide improvement of network lifetime in a sufficiently connected network. However, LMA only guarantees connectivity between the nodes, but cannot estimate link quality [6�C8]. Reliability eventually reduces due to the possibility of choosing a lossy link that affects irregular packet reception [9].The Local Information No Topology/Local Information Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Link-state Topology (LINT/LILT) and Dynamic Transmission Power Control (DTPC) use the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).

The nodes exceeding the RSSI threshold are regarded Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries as the neighbor nodes with reliable links [10,11]. Transmission power can be controlled by a given Packet Reception Ratio (PRR) metric. Reducing the unnecessary control packet through blacklisting is also proposed [12]. While the PRR metric allows one to make more precise estimates, doing so requires several samplings, which decrease the agility of link quality estimation.RSSI is inversely proportional to temperature and can differ by up to 8 dBm when the temperature changes from 25 ��C to 65 ��C. In other words, the Drug_discovery RSSI threshold that satisfies the required PRR can change by up to 8 dBm. The Adaptive Transmission Power Control (ATPC) adjusts the transmission power dynamically according to spatial and temporal effects.

This scheme tries to adapt the link quality that changes over time by using closed-loop feedback [7]. However, in large-scale wireless sensor networks, it is difficult to support scalability due to the serious overhead required to adjust the transmission power of each link.Existing approaches estimate a variety of excellent validation link quality indicators by periodically broadcasting a beacon. In addition, the feedback process is repeated for adaptively controlling transmission power.

In contrast with product quantization, we focus on the performanc

In contrast with product quantization, we focus on the performance for unstructured vector data. We introduce residual vector quantization, AGI-6780? which is appropriate for unstructured Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries data, for the vector encoding. An efficient exhaustive search method is proposed based on fast distance computing. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries A non-exhaustive search method is proposed to improve the efficiency for large scale search. Our approaches are compared to two state-of-the-art methods, spectral hashing and product quantization, on both structured and unstructured datasets. Results show that our approaches obtain the best results in terms of accuracy and speed.Our paper is organized as follows: Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Section 2 presents the residual vector quantization and Section 3 introduces our exhaustive and non-exhaustive search methods that are based on the residual vector quantization.

Section 4 evaluates the search performance and compares our approaches with two state-of-the-art methods. Section 5 discusses the results and Section 6 is the conclusion.2.?Residual Vector QuantizationA K-point vector quantizerQ maps a vector xRD into its Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries nearest centroidin codebook C = ci, i = 1..K RD:x?=Q(x)=arg?minci��C?d(x,?ci)(1)where d(x, ci) is the exact Euclidean distance between x and ci. This destructive process can be interpreted as approximating the x by one of centroids in RD space [18], and the residual vector is:?=x?x?=x?Q(x)(2)The performance of quantizer Q is measured by mean squared error (MSE):MSE(Q)=EX[d(x,?Q(x))2](3)Residual vector quantization [19,20] is a common technique to reduce the quantization error with several low complexity quantizers.

Residual vector quantization approximate the quantization error by another quantizer instead of discard it. Several stage-quantizers, each has its corresponding stage-codebook, are connected sequentially. Each stage-quantizer approximates preceding stage��s residual vector by one of AV-951 centroids in the stage-codebook and generates a new residual vector for succeeding quantization stage. Block diagrams of a two stages residual vector quantization are shown in Figure 1. In the learning phase (Figure 1(a)), a training vector set X is provided and the first stage-codebook C1 is generated by k-means clustering method. The entire training set is then quantized by the first stage-quantizer Q1 which is defined by C1.

The difference between X and its first stage quantization outputs, which is the first residual vector set E1, is used for learning the second stage-codebook C2. In quantizing phase (Figure 1(b)), the input selleck chemicals vector x is quantized by first stage-quantizer Q1, which is defined by first stage-codebook C1. The difference between x and its first stage quantization output, which is the first residual vector 1, is quantized by second stage-quantizer Q2. The second residual vector 2 is discarded.

request/response, event driven, and resource-oriented; and to ena

request/response, event driven, and resource-oriented; and to enable click here context sensitive applications that seamlessly integrate environmental monitoring.In this paper, we argue for the use of semantic web technology to supply rich metadata in a machine understandable format together with a set of services to exploit Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries these semantic annotations to address these issues. We describe a sensor web architecture that enables integration and correlation of multiple heterogeneous datasets, including both live sensor data, historic sensor data, and contextual data (e.g., details of sea defences as provided by the UK Environment Agency��s National Flood and Coastal Defence Database (nfcdd) [3], or the road network as a map overlay). We propose an approach that makes extensive use of semantic technologies (i.
e., ontologies [4], rdf [5], sparql [6]), both for data discovery and data integration. This enables users to interact with data within a conceptualisation that they are familiar with. On the other hand, it does not tie the system to one particular model over the data. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Indeed, publishers are free to publish their data according to the model in which it is generated. The publisher could already be publishing their data in a particular model. We aim to support the reuse of data in ways that transcend its original purpose.The services of the semantic sensor web approach build on existing web service recommendations for data access and integration [7], and notifications [8]. Our approach is complementary to the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement (ogc-swe) framework [9,10] in that existing ogc-swe services (e.
g., Sensor Observation Service) can be incorporated into our approach, as well as being used as services on top of our semantic sensor web (as will be described in Section 4).We demonstrate the use of our semantic sensor web architecture in the context of a flood Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries response planning web application. The application is aimed at a variety Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of user groups from members of the public to those responsible for identifying and responding to coastal flooding events. The application uses the semantic registry service to discover and dynamically incorporate relevant sources of sensed, modelled, and contextual data according to the user��s role and area of interest. Stored and streaming data services are used to access historic and near real-time sensor data, including sources which may have been semantically combined through data integration services.
For example, the application provides an innovative AV-951 tool for alerting users to the incidence and forecast of flood defence over-topping events.Section 2 provides details of related work in the areas of sensor web architectures and decision support systems. We motivate the use of ontologies for modelling data in the semantic sensor web in Section 3, and present the network of Tipifarnib R115777 ontologies used in the flood warning system deployment.

This can allow for the detection of extremely low concentrations

This can allow for the detection of extremely low concentrations of molecules with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) [11,12] as well. Hence, the ideal LSPR nanosensor should have a high spectral selleck kinase inhibitor shift along the alteration of surrounding material and a narrow linewidth of spectral response [13]. Yet, lower sensitivity has been marked at LSPR sensors compared Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries with their counterparts.Major issues of current LSPR bio-sensor research include understanding LSPR properties in certain nanostructures, optimizing the design of nanostructures, and improving sensitivity and detection limits. In this review, the uses of assorted nanostructures as potential sensing components are presented and re-categorized according to their similar characteristics. Exemplary cases of biological sensing with LSPR are addressed.
2.?Basic Principle of Localized Surface Plasmon ResonanceWhen a metallic nanostructure is illuminated by an appropriate incident wavelength, localized electrons in the metallic nanostructure oscillate and create strong Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries surface waves [14]. The curved surface of the particle generates an effective restoring force on the conduction electrons so that resonance can arise. This phenomenon leads to strong field enhancement in the near field zone. This resonance is called LSPR. The LSPR phenomenon is theoretically possible in any kind of metal, semiconductor or alloy with a large negative real part and small imaginary part of electric permittivity.We can obtain the explicit form of electromagnetic field distribution using some assumptions when a particle interacts with electromagnetic field.
First, we assume the particle size is much smaller than wavelength of light in the surrounding medium. In this condition, the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries phase of the harmonically oscillating electromagnetic field is approximately constant over the particle volume. This is called quasi-static approximation. Second, we choose a simple geometry for analytical treatment: The particle is a homogeneous isotropic sphere of radius r0, and surrounding material is a homogeneous, isotropic and non-absorbing medium. On the illumination of static electric fields, we solve Laplace equation for the potential, 2V=0. Due to the azimuthal symmetry Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the problem and requirement that the potentials remain finite at the center of the particle, the solutions of this Laplace equation for potentials inside and outside the particle can be written as:Vin(r,��)=��l=0��AlrlPl(cos?��),Vout(r,��)=��l=0��[Blrl+Clr?(l+1)]Pl(cos?��).
(1)where, Anacetrapib Pl(cos��) is the Legendre polynomial of order l, and �� is the angle between the position vector r and the electric field E?.gif” border=”0″ alt=”[E w/ right arrow above]” title=”"/>. The coefficients Al, Bl, Cl can be determined using boundary conditions: selleck chemical Ixazomib as r approaches infinity, the potential approaches �C| E?.gif” border=”0″ alt=”[E w/ right arrow above]” title=”"/> | rcos��.

Recently, Ni-based materials have been extensively investigated f

Recently, Ni-based materials have been extensively investigated for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, since they could allow production inhibitor Pfizer of glucose sensors in large numbers at low cost [10�C14]. The oxidation processes are catalyzed by the Ni-based materials through the formation of a high-valent, oxyhydroxide species [NiOOH] in alkaline medium [11]. Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional [2D] honeycomb sp2 carbon lattice, has a unique ability to promote fast electron transfer kinetics for a wide range of electroactive species [15,16]. Deposition of metal nanoparticles on graphene sheets gives rise to nanocomposites with larger Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries active surface areas and enhanced electron transport, making the nanocomposites ideal materials for the fabrication of electrochemical sensing devices [17].
It has been reported that graphene may play a distinct role in improving the conductivity of Ni-based Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries materials for glucose sensors, in which the electron transfer is quick, effectively enhancing the detecting Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sensitivity Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and shortening the response times [18�C20]. Very recently, chemical vapor deposition has increased in popularity in the synthesis of graphene/Ni nanohybrids, although the processes are complicated and hence difficult to scale [21,22].Microwave irradiation is an attractive and facile method for the rapid synthesis of nanocrystals with small particle size, narrow particle size distribution, and high purity. Compared with conventional heating, it has a more homogeneous heating process.
Moreover, it can promote nucleation and reduce the synthesis times considerably, generating smaller and more uniform particles [23�C25]. Herein, Dacomitinib we demonstrated a facile one-step microwave-assisted method to directly deposit Ni nanospheres on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets (Scheme 1). When a GO sheet solution is mixed with a nickel salt solution, Ni2+ is selectively bonded with carboxyl through mutual electrostatic attraction. Under continuous stirring conditions, the interlayer spacing gradually increases and Ni2+ could interlaminate more easily into the enlarged layer [26]. In the presence of hydrazine monohydrate, Ni nanospheres were grown onto rGO sheets in ethylene glycol (EG) solution under a low level of microwave irradiation (300 W) for 20 min, during which GOs were also reduced to rGO.
These nanocomposites exhibit well-dispersed Ni nanosphere (about 80 nm in diameter) loadings and effective sellckchem reduction of graphene oxide. By forming the rGO-supported Ni nanospheres (Ni-rGO nanohybrids), one might be able to take advantage of the best features of both components. As expected, the as-prepared Ni-rGO nanohybrid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) shows highly sensitivity and fast amperometric sensing of glucose. In addition, interference from the oxidation of common interfering species present in body fluids, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), is effectively avoided.2.

In traffic management and security monitoring, the telephoto occa

In traffic management and security monitoring, the telephoto occasions are often encountered, selleck chemical for example, for capturing the license plate of an escaping vehicle that has just run a red light. However, all existing zoom tracking methods mentioned previously have been developed for the digital still camera systems. These algorithmic methods assume that the object distance is constant; thus, the moving or switching object in video surveillance [19] has not been considered.Figure 4(a) shows the moving object as the zoom is changed from wide-angle to tele-angle. The object distance is changing as the car moves towards the video camera during zooming. In this situation, existing methods cannot produce an ideal result. There are several other situations in which these methods cannot properly function, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries even when the objects are stationary.
Figure 4(b) illustrates the switching object during zooming. The computer box and network switch are shown as two stationary objects at different distances in the scene. When the zoom motor is moved from wide-angle to tele-angle, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the main target in the video changes from the computer box to the network switch. The traditional zoom tracking methods will also fail in this situation.Figure 4.(a) Moving object during zooming; (b) Switching object during zooming.To track moving and switching objects in digital video surveillance and to acquire better estimated results without pre-training the system, we propose the robust Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries feedback zoom tracking (FZT) method to revise the estimated trace curve, which is based on traditional GZT estimation and utilises a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) loop-closed feedback controller [20�C22].
In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process, a PID controller has historically been considered optimal [23]. The controller can provide control action for specific process requirements by tuning its parameters. This method Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Entinostat compensates for errors along the estimated trace curve using the real-time focus value (FV), which is typically used in the auto-focusing function.1.4. Contributions and OrganisationIn this work: (1) we discuss the zoom tracking methods in video surveillance for the first time; (2) we propose a novel zoom tracking method called FZT, which is robust in tracking moving or switching objects in video surveillance; (3) we implement our FZT zoom tracking algorithm on real-time digital video hardware and compare it with commonly used algorithms.
To MEK162 MEK the best of our knowledge, the focus value and real-time feedback mechanism have not yet been used in previous zoom tracking studies, and there have been no previous reports on the implementation of the zoom tracking method in video surveillance devices.This paper is organised as follows. Section 2 introduces our FZT method in detail. The FZT approach is then implemented on the hardware platform in Section 3.

Although, nitrocellulose membranes are smooth and have a reasonab

Although, nitrocellulose membranes are smooth and have a reasonably uniform pore size (0.45 ��m), which results in a more stable and reproducible liquid flow within the paper, the wax penetration is slow compared to filter paper. Another avenue customer review for exploration is the use of chemically modified cellulose fibres. There exist commercially available ion-exchange cellulose papers and composite papers consisting of cellulose and polyester [26].Instead of using filter paper as the main material to create paper-based sensing devices, other types of paper such as glossy paper have been reported Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries as a suitable platform in sensor technologies. Glossy paper is a flexible substrate made of cellulose fibre blended with an Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries inorganic filler. Arena et al.
[28] used glossy paper for developing a flexible paper-based sensor for the detection of ethanol using indium tin oxide nanoparticulate powder as a sensing material and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrodes. Due to the non-degradability and relatively smooth surface of glossy paper, it is a good substitute for filter paper especially when modifying nanomaterials Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries onto a surface rather than within the fibre matrix is necessary.2.2. Fabrication and PatterningIn fabricating paper devices, the choice of techniques and materials that meet the criteria of low cost, simplicity and efficient production process need to be considered. There are several techniques and processes involving chemical modification and/or physical deposition that could be used to tune the properties of the paper such that it becomes available for further modification or direct usage in a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries range of applications GSK-3 [40].
Techniques reported in the literature include photolithography [11,19,20], analogue plotting [21], inkjet printing [41] and etching [22,23,31], plasma treatment [42,43], paper contain cutting [12,13], wax printing [44�C46], flexography printing [47], screen printing [5], and laser treatment [1,48]. Techniques were chosen depending on the type of material used and the type of modification required. Much research is
The availability of user-adapted information is an essential aspect of public transport systems, since it helps to improve the quality of service and constitutes a basic resource in complex and dynamic transport systems. According to the studies conducted by different local, regional, national and even international organizations, such as the University of Michigan Transport Research Institute [1] and the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) [2], the information should be adapted as needs vary according to the type of person using the service. Indeed, for the information to be effective for the traveller, it must be comprehensible and coherent.

e level of positive cells decreases with low oxygen supply These

e level of positive cells decreases with low oxygen supply. These results indicate the supportive effect of lowered oxygen conditions for the differentia tion of hNPCs. In order to determine the influence of hypoxia in detail, we cultured proliferating cells in low oxygen followed by a differentiation at 3% and 20% oxygen. In Figure 5D the percentage of neurons evalu ated by bIII tubulin expression kinase inhibitor EPZ-5676 is shown. Cells prolifer ated and differentiated at low oxygen levels displayed an increase of bIII tub cells at day 3 and at day 4 com pared to a proliferation of cells at 20% oxygen. Next we analysed whether EPO influenced neuronal differentia tion, but with both concentrations no change in the number of bIII tub cells was detected. Figure 5E shows a summary of 3 and 4 days differentiated hNPCs of all conditions tested.

At day 3 significant differences of neuronal differentiation have been found. The number of neurons was Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries significantly increased up to 4. 51 0. 45% when differentiated at 3% oxygen, compared to 2. 95 0. 25% when differentiated at 20% O2. In addition, the expansion of cells at low oxygen increased the number of bIII tub cells. When differentiated at 3%, 5. 92 1. 66% of positive cells have been detected, when differentiated at 20%, 5. 20 0. 87% Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of positive cells have been found. This indicates that there seem to be two independent mechanisms of differentiation. First, a differentiation of human progeni tor cells in lowered oxygen increases the number of neurons and in addition, an expansion of cells in low ered oxygen influences the differentiation potential of hNPCs as well, independently of the culturing condi tions during differentiation.

Anti apoptotic effect Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of hypoxia and EPO on differentiated hNPCs Since differentiation of progenitor cells is associated with apoptosis and EPO is a well known anti apoptotic mediator, we investigated the amount of apoptotic cells during differentiation in normoxic and hypoxic condi tions. Again the cells differentiated up to 4 days and each day samples were taken from cells cul tured Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries under normoxic and hypoxic conditions with and the amount of apoptotic cells in our cell population a TUNEL staining and consecutive FACS analysis was performed. Over time we observed a continuously rising apoptosis starting with 7. 78 3. 10% that culminated in 32. 43 4. 26% at day 4 in cells cultivated with normoxic oxygen levels.

During the first three days neither hypoxia nor EPO affected the apoptosis of the hNPCs. On day 4 of differentiation we remarkably observed that both in hypoxia and normoxic EPO treated cells the level of Cilengitide apoptotic cells was only half as high as in the normoxic control. There was no significant difference between EPO treated normoxic cells and cells differentiated in hypoxia. Application of EPO under hypoxia did not lead to an additional effect 5 A western blot analysis was performed to measure the expression of the anti apoptotic protein Bcl 2 in cells differentiated up to 4 days. In accorda