Significant differences were found among journals with the Journa

Significant differences were found among journals with the Journal of Clinical Periodontology Selleck PF-00299804 achieving the highest score, followed by the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics There was a positive association between quality score and number of authors, involvement of statistician/epidemiologist, and multicentre trials\n\nConclusions The quality scores of RCTs in major dental journals are considered suboptimal in key CONSORT areas This receives critical importance considering that

improved quality of RCTs is a fundamental prerequisite for improved dental care (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Background: There are limited data characterizing recurrent staphylococcal disease in children. We sought to define the clinical features and laboratory findings of children with recurrent community-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections presenting Bafilomycin A1 inhibitor to Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston, TX. Methods: Medical records of children with recurrent, culture-proven community-associated S. aureus infections at Texas Children’s Hospital from 8/1/2001 to 7/29/2009 were reviewed, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were obtained for all S. aureus isolates. Results: Six hundred ninety-four otherwise healthy patients presented

to Texas Children’s Hospital with 2-7 episodes of community-associated S. aureus infection, accounting for 1495 encounters, 823 hospitalizations and 3337 inpatient days. In 90% of patients with smaller than = 12 months separating their initial and recurrent infections, the methicillin susceptibility of the initial and recurrent isolates was the same, compared with 79% of patients with bigger than 12 months separating their infections. The overall antibiotic susceptibility pattern did not change between isolates in 71% of otherwise healthy children compared with only 33% of children with eczema. Ninety-two percent of otherwise healthy children had only recurrent skin and soft tissue infections; 8% had bigger than = 1 non-skin

and soft tissue infections. The location of skin and soft tissue infections varied Nepicastat nmr by age, with children smaller than = 36 months of age being more likely to have bigger than = 1 S. aureus infection located in the diaper area. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that recurrent staphylococcal disease requiring emergency center or inpatient care is common, accounting for significant utilization of hospital resources. Children with recurrent staphylococcal infections are likely to have repeated infections from the same staphylococcal strain (by antibiotic susceptibility pattern), indicating that persistent colonization, frequent exposure to others who are chronically colonized, or environmental contamination is playing a role in recurrent disease.

(C) 2013 by the American Pain Society”
“A new species of the

(C) 2013 by the American Pain Society”
“A new species of the genus Satyrichthys, Satyrichthys kikingeri sp. nov., is described

from the Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives Archipelago. The new species is placed in a group of Satyrichthys with at least three lip barbels and unequal parietal bones. It differs from its congeners in the combination of the following characters: (1) 3/3 lip and 1/0 chin barbels, (2) 15 fin rays in the second dorsal fin, 13 fin rays in the anal fin, (3) 25 bony plates in the dorsal, 29 in the upper lateral and 20 in the lower lateral rows, (4) 21st to 28th bony plates in the upper lateral row with forward directed spines and (5) parietal bones unequal in size on RG-7112 manufacturer midline. Satyrichthys kikingeri sp. nov. is the first Satyrichthys species reported from the Republic of the Maldives.”
“Collagen is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays a wide variety of important roles in blood clotting, healing, and tissue remodeling. Natural, animal derived, collagen

is used in many clinical applications but concerns exist with respect to its role in inflammation, batch-to-batch variability, and possible disease transfection. Therefore, development of synthetic nanomaterials that can mimic the nanostructure and properties of natural collagen has been Anti-infection Compound Library manufacturer a heavily pursued goal in biomaterials. Previously, we reported on the design and multihierarchial self-assembly of a 36 amino acid collagen mimetic peptide (KOD) that forms nanofibrous triple helices that entangle to form a hydrogel. In this report, we utilize this nanofiber forming collagen mimetic peptide as a synthetic biomimetic matrix useful in thrombosis. We demonstrate that nanofibrous KOD synthetic collagen matrices adhere platelets, activate them (indicated by soluble P-selectin secretion), and clot plasma and blood similar to animal derived collagen and control surfaces. In addition to the thrombotic potential, THP-1 monocytes CP-868596 incubated with

our KOD collagen mimetic showed minimal proinflammatory c-ytokine (TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta) production. Together, the data presented demonstrates the potential of a novel synthetic collagen mimetic as a hemostat.”
“Expression of a truncated form of wheat TdSOS1 in Arabidopsis exhibited an improved salt tolerance. This finding provides new hints about this protein that can be considered as a salt tolerance determinant. The SOS signaling pathway has emerged as a key mechanism in preserving the homeostasis of Na+ and K+ under saline conditions. We have recently identified and functionally characterized, by complementation studies in yeast, the gene encoding the durum wheat plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (TdSOS1). To extend these functional studies to the whole plant level, we complemented Arabidopsis sos1-1 mutant with wild-type TdSOS1 or with the hyperactive form TdSOS1a dagger 972 and compared them to the Arabidopsis AtSOS1 protein.

Importantly, in addition

to its potential use as a screen

Importantly, in addition

to its potential use as a screening tool, our experimental setup offers the possibility to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of bait-prey interaction. Recruitment of the EGFR together with Grb2 to clathrin coated pits (CCPs) was found to be a key feature in our assay. Application of bleaching experiments enabled calculation of the Grb2 exchange rate, which significantly changed upon stimulation or the presence of EGFR activity inhibiting drugs.”
“Co-digestion of pig manure (PM1) with BMS-345541 fish (FW2) and biodiesel waste (BW3) was evaluated and compared with sole PM digestion. Results indicated that co-digestion of PM with FW and/or BW is possible as long as ammonium and volatile fatty acids remained under inhibitory levels by adjusting the operating conditions, such as feed composition, organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). PM and FW co-digestion (90:10 and 95:5, w/w(4)) was possible Smad cancer at OLR of 1-1.5 g COD/L d, resulting in biogas production rates of 0.4-0.6 L/L d and COD removal efficiencies of 65-70%. Regarding BW, good results (biogas production of 0.9 L/L d and COD elimination of 85%) were achieved with less than 5% feeding rate. Overall, operating at the same OLR, the biogas production and methane content in the co-digester was higher than in the only PM digester.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: We evaluated the frequencies and clinical consequences of mutations in the genes encoding cationic trypsinogen, serine protease 1 (PRSS1),

and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) in children with acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP).\n\nPatients and Methods: The study population consisted of 32 children with ARP or CP and 28 healthy controls. We analyzed clinical data and the sequences of the entire coding region and the intron-exon boundaries of the PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes from each patient.\n\nResults: Fifteen (46.9%) of the 32 patients had at least 1 PRSS1 or SPINK1 mutation. Four (12.5%) of the 32 patients carried the p.N29I, p.R122H, or p.N29T mutation or a p.G208A variant of GDC-0068 the PRSS1 gene in a heterozygote state. Eleven (34.4%) of the 32 patients carried either the IVS3+2T>C or p.N34S mutation of the SPINK1 gene. No PRSS1 or SPINK1 mutations were identified in the control group. In particular, mutations were identified in 4 of our patients who experienced pancreas divisum with CP, whereas the remaining 2 patients with pancreas divisum and ARP did not have mutation.\n\nConclusions: The frequencies of the PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutations are relatively high in Korean children with ARP or CP. Mutations in the PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes are highly associated with the development of childhood ARP or CP.

Production of diacids from glycerol oxidation over supported Au c

Production of diacids from glycerol oxidation over supported Au catalysts was promoted by operating in a continuous flow reactor and by increasing VX-689 the catalyst loading in a semi-batch reactor. Trace inhibitors formed by conversion of the product monoacid are

proposed to account for the generally low selectivity to diacids over gold catalysts.”
“The subterranean blind mole rats of the superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi (Nehring, 1898) have developed several strategies to cope with changing concentrations of underground oxygen. Such an atmosphere induces the generation of reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative damage without proper control. To understand how S. ehrenbergi appear to be able to counteract the free radicals and avoid oxidative damage, we studied the oxidative status of the Harderian gland (an organ particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress in many rodents) in two species of the superspecies S. ehrenbergi (Spalax galili and Spalax judaei) under different oxygen

concentration levels, paying special attention to the antioxidant defences developed by these animals and the resulting macromolecular damage. The results presented herein reinforce the idea Selleck ACY-241 that S. ehrenbergi deal better with hypoxic conditions than other rodents by regulating the activity of its antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, S. galili is better adapted to hypoxic

conditions, whereas S. judaei appears to be better adapted to hyperoxic conditions.”
“Two types of dentition are generated in a human’s lifetime: the primary dentition, followed by the permanent dentition. Undoubtedly, teeth are essential for speech and mastication in both dentitions, but it is becoming apparent that dental pulp also plays a role in harboring mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To date, three kinds of MSCs derived from dental pulp have been established: permanent tooth, primary tooth, and immature apical papilla. The dental pulp from primary teeth is considered a particularly good source of MSCs; it can be obtained from extracted primary teeth, of which humans have 20. The past decade has seen many reports of dental pulp-derived MSCs, and the field is becoming see more increasingly popular. The present article describes the characterization of dental pulp-derived MSCs from primary teeth. It also discusses future banking activity of primary teeth, because it is known that dental pulp-derived MSCs have similar potential to those derived from bone marrow. Methods with which to optimize the cryopreservation process should therefore be investigated, because banked dental pulp may provide a great resource in future regenerative medicine.”
“Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) (EC is an important therapeutic target for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes.

0-8 0 and 8 0-10, respectively Maximum production of proteases w

0-8.0 and 8.0-10, respectively. Maximum production of proteases was observed at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C while that of alpha amylase was observed at 40

degrees C. The optimum aeration and agitation levels for protease production were 0.6 L/L/min and 200rpm, respectively, and for alpha amylase were 0.6 L/L/min and 150 rpm. The kinetic parameters Y-p/x and qp were also found to be significant at the given fermentation conditions.”
“The nutritional requirements of pikeperch larvae have been sparsely examined. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may affect growth and physiological stress response in marine fish larvae, but these mechanisms have not received as much attention in freshwater fish. Pikeperch larvae were reared on Artemia from day 3 until 21 days posthatch. Artemia were enriched with six formulated emulsions, with inclusion AZD1390 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor of either fish oil, pure olive

oil (POO) or olive oil supplemented with various combinations of ARA, EPA and DHA. Larval tissue FA was significantly related to the content in the diets, but larval growth was similar for all treatments. When exposed to LEE011 order stress by confinement in small tanks with culture tank water or saline water (15 g L(-1).), mortality in larvae treated with POO was significantly higher than in the remaining treatments while tissue cortisol contents in these fish seemed lower. The findings of a lower stress response in larvae fed POO may be related to the lower tissue JNK-IN-8 in vivo content in these larvae of essential fatty acids especially DHA but also EPA and ARA.”
“In order to optimize the use of genomic selection in breeding plans, it is essential to have reliable

estimates of the genomic breeding values. This study investigated reliabilities of direct genomic values (DGVs) in the Jersey population estimated by three different methods. The validation methods were (i) fivefold cross-validation and (ii) validation on the most recent 3 years of bulls. The reliability of DGV was assessed using squared correlations between DGV and deregressed proofs (DRPs). In the recent 3-year validation model, estimated reliabilities were also used to assess the reliabilities of DGV. The data set consisted of 1003 Danish Jersey bulls with conventional estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 14 different traits included in the Nordic selection index. The bulls were genotyped for Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina 54 K chip. A Bayesian method was used to estimate the SNP marker effects. The corrected squared correlations between DGV and DRP were on average across all traits 0.04 higher than the squared correlation between DRP and the pedigree index. This shows that there is a gain in accuracy due to incorporation of marker information compared with parent index pre-selection only. Averaged across traits, the estimates of reliability of DGVs ranged from 0.

7/-14 2 mmHg (p < 0 001) and -31 7/-17 9 mmHg (p < 0 001),

7/-14.2 mmHg (p < 0.001) and -31.7/-17.9 mmHg (p < 0.001), respectively.

There were 60.2% of the non-diabetics on prior monotherapy who, at eight weeks, fulfilled the primary blood pressure goal for SBP and DBP, versus 26.5% of the diabetic patients, also on monotherapy. Few adverse events were BIX-01294 reported, with facial oedema and dry cough recurring twice in two patients.\n\nConclusion: Fixed-dose combination of ramipril/HCTZ is therefore effective, tolerable and has a good safety profile for blood pressure control in black Africans.”
“Plastics or polymers of high thermal conductivity are highly desired in various industries. Adding fillers of high thermal conductivity 4EGI-1 to the base materials is a solution to make composite plastics of high thermal conductivity. Previous researches were focused on increasing the thermal conductivity of the composite materials by increasing the filler content and the thermal conductivity of the fillers. Relatively little attention was paid to the optimization of filler shapes. In this study, the effects of the filler shapes on the thermal conductivity of the composite materials are investigated, where

the filler shapes are artificially designed. Heat conduction between the base materials and the artificially designed fillers is modeled. It is found that the filler shapes have great impacts on the effective thermal conductivity of the composite materials. Of the various shapes, the double Y shaped fillers are found to be the best choice for composite materials in which the fillers are distributed randomly. In future industrial applications, new filler shapes, such as double Y, Y, quad Y shaped, I and T shapes should be specially produced to replace the traditional fillers shapes: particles, 5-Fluoracil molecular weight fibers or slices. At last, composite materials made of paraffin wax and steel fillers of ten shapes are fabricated to simulate and validate the results. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 39550.”
“Most Saccharomyces spp. cannot degrade or ferment dextrin, which is the second most abundant carbohydrate

in wort for commercial beer production. Dextrin-degrading brewer’s bottom and top yeasts expressing the glucoamylase gene (GAM1) from Debaryomyces occidentalis were developed to produce low-carbohydrate (calorie) beers. GAM1 was constitutively expressed in brewer’s yeasts using a rDNA-integration system that contained yeast CUP1 gene coding for copper resistance as a selective marker. The recombinants secreted active glucoamylase, displaying both alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-debranching activities, that degraded dextrin and isomaltose and consequently grew using them as sole carbon source. One of the recombinant strains expressing GAM1 hydrolyzed 96 % of 2 % (w/v) dextrin and 98 % of 2 % (w/v) isomaltose within 5 days of growth.

In our opinion, this statement does not fit the medical reality

In our opinion, this statement does not fit the medical reality. To go into this subject PD0325901 ic50 in depth, and if possible to clarify it, we reviewed the most recent literature on clinical trials conducted with embryonic stem cells, concluding that up to the present time, there is only one ongoing clinical trial being carried out with these types of cells to treat a small group of patients with spinal cord injury. The results of this trial have still not been published. In conclusion, at present, there is only evidence of one phase I

clinical trial conducted with embryonic stem cells, in comparison to the numerous trials conducted with adult stem cells.”
“The ammonium-directed olefinic epoxidations of a range of differentially N-substituted cyclic allylic and homoallylic amines (derived from

cyclopentene, cyclohexene, and cycloheptene) have been investigated, and the reaction kinetics have been analyzed. The results of these studies suggest that both the ring size Akt inhibitor and the identity of the substituents on nitrogen are important in determining both the overall rate and the stereochemical outcome of the epoxidation reaction. In general, secondary amines or tertiary amines with nonsterically demanding substituents on nitrogen are superior to tertiary amines with sterically demanding substituents on nitrogen in their ability to promote the oxidation reaction. Furthermore, in all cases examined, the ability of the (in situ formed) ammonium substituent to direct the stereochemical course of the epoxidation reaction is either comparable or superior to that find more of the analogous hydroxyl substituent. Much slower rates of ring-opening of the intermediate epoxides are observed in cyclopentene-derived and cycloheptene-derived allylic amines as compared with their cyclohexene-derived allylic and homoallylic amine counterparts, allowing for isolation of these intermediates in both of the former cases.”
“Introduction: Cognitive and attentional deficits in schizophrenia include impairment of the sensorimotor filter as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). In this way, the study of animals that naturally

present low PPI responses could be a useful approach for screening new antipsychotic drugs. Several pieces of evidence suggest that dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) can modulate PPI but their role in those animals is unknown.\n\nObjectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dopamine and NO in Wistar rats with naturally low PPI response.\n\nMethods: Male Wistar rats with low PPI responses received an i.p. injection of the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg) or clozapine (0.5, 1.5 or 5 mg/kg), the anxiolytic diazepam (1 or 3 mg/kg) or the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, N(G)- nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 40 mg/kg, acutely or sub-chronically) or 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI; 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg). All animals were submitted to the PPI test 1 h after injection.

(C) 2013 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“By employing L

(C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“By employing Lyapunov functional method and Kronecker product technique, the global exponential synchronization learn more is studied for uncertain delayed networks with both constant coupling and distributed-delay coupling. Some easy-to-test sufficient conditions are given to ensure the global exponential synchronization of uncertain network with delay and mixed coupling for all admissible uncertainties. The proposed linear matrix inequality results are computationally efficient as it can be solved numerically using standard commercial software. An illustrative example is given to show the usefulness

of the result. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Objective: To evaluate the feasibility

and reproducibility of ultrasound elastography (UE) in the assessment of healthy patellar tendon and to describe its UE pattern. Methods: Twenty-two patellar tendons of 11 out of 16 healthy subjects who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated three times by ultrasound (US) and UE at their proximal, middle and distal portions, by two separate sonographers with different experiences in UE. Results: In all tendon portions the color map analysis showed a predominance buy SCH 900776 of green (highly elastic), with good values of intra-observer (Operator 1: P-values = 0.790, 0.864, 0.865; Operator 2: P = 0.642, 0.882, 0.613 for proximal, middle and distal portions, respectively) and inter-observer (P selleck compound = 0.657) agreement. For both operators the intra-observer analysis of the elasticity ratio (ER) between the tendon and the subcutis showed high agreement values (P smaller than 0.001 for both operators). The inter-observer analysis showed also high agreement values (P

smaller than 0.001 at proximal, P = 0.001 at middle, P = 0.005 at distal portions). The overall analysis of the ER of the tendon portions showed values of (mean +/- SD): 1.47 +/- 0.64, 4.38 +/- 1.36, 3.32 +/- 1.20 for proximal, middle and distal portions, respectively. The mean time to perform the UE evaluation for the inexperienced operator was 5 min at the beginning of the study but decreased to 2 min after a few examinations were done. The mean time for the expert was 2 min for the entire study. Conclusions: UE is a feasible and reproducible tool for the evaluation of the healthy patellar tendon and further data are needed to define its role in the assessment of tendon pathology.”
“The fatty acid binding protein 6 (Fabp6) is commonly regarded as a bile acid binding protein found in the distal portion of the small intestine and has been shown to be important in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. Previous studies have also reported the presence of Fabp6 in human, rat and fish ovaries, but the significance of Fabp6 in this organ is largely unknown.

All measurements were collected at the participants’ usual, self-

All measurements were collected at the participants’ usual, self-selected

walking speed.\n\nResults. Fifty community-dwelling older adults with slow and variable gait participated. Hip extension, trunk flexion, and step width were factors related to the energy cost of walking. Hip, extension, step width, and cadence were the only gait measures beyond age and gait speed that provided additional contributions to the variance of the energy cost, with mean R(2) changes of .22, .12, and .07, respectively.\n\nLimitations. Other factors not investigated in this study (interactions among variables, psychosocial factors, muscle strength force-generating capacity], range of motion, body composition, and resting metabolic rate)

may further explain the greater energy cost of walking in older adults with slow and variable gait.\n\nConclusions. Closer inspection of hip extension, buy OICR-9429 Cediranib datasheet step width, and cadence during physical therapy gait assessments may assist physical therapists in recognizing factors that contribute to the greater energy cost of walking in older adults.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the association and interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CFH and LOC387715/ARMS2 with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Korean population.\n\nMethods: A total of 114 exudative AMD patients and 240 normal subjects participated in the study. PCR and direct sequencing were used to screen SNPs in the CFH and in the LOC387715/ARMS2. Genotype and haplotype analyses were performed. Two-locus gene-gene interactions

were evaluated by the data mining approach multifactor-dimensionality reduction method.\n\nResults: The *C/*T genotype frequency of rs1061170 in CFH showed a significant difference (OR = 1.79). Genotype and allele frequencies of rs551397 (*C/*C, OR = 2.84; *C, OR = 1.67) and rs800292 (*G/*G, OR = 2.198; *G, OR = 1.676) in CFH, and rs10490924 (T/*T, OR = 12.45; *T, OR = 4.45) and rs2736911 (*C/*C, OR = 3.21; *C, OR = 2.71) in MAPK inhibitor LOC387715/ARMS2 were significantly higher in patients. In the haplotype analysis, C-T of rs2736911-rs10490924 in LOC387715/ARMS2 (OR = 4.85) and C-G of rs551397-rs800292 in CFH (OR = 2.22) predisposed significantly to AMD. After cross-validation consistency (CVC) and permutation tests, we identified the 1 marker model (rs10490924), which has a prediction accuracy of 73.5%, and the two locus model, rs10490924_ rs800292, with 75.3% balanced accuracy in predicting AMD disease risk.\n\nConclusions: Korean individuals with the LOC387715/ARMS2 rs10490924, and to a lesser extent, CFH rs800292 variants might be at a greater risk for the development of exudative AMD. Furthermore, the risk of exudative AMD may increase significantly if these variants are both present in the two genes.”
“Background: Articular cartilage undergoes substantial age-related changes in molecular composition, matrix structure, and mechanical properties.

Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate Publication bi

Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Publication bias was evaluated using the fail-safe number. Our case-control study provided no evidence for the association of G460W with essential hypertension, even under assumptions of three genetic modes of inheritance (P>0.05). The subsequent meta-analysis including 15 studies with 4417 cases and 5716 controls also failed to demonstrate overall this association, even upon stratification by race (Caucasians and Asians). For example, the summary odds ratio (OR) AZD8931 datasheet under a random effects model indicated that carriers

of 460W allele were 1.09 times more likely to develop hypertension (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.24; P = 0.19) among Asians, whereas a protective effect of this allele was observed in Caucasians (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.73-1.18; P = 0.54). PU-H71 supplier The fail-safe number at the level of 0.05 was in favour of our findings. Our case-control study and the following meta-analysis failed

to provide evidence for the genetic association of a-adducin gene G460W polymorphism with hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 467-474; doi: 10.1038/jhh.2009.88; published online 3 December 2009″
“We determined the causes of bone resorption within a distraction gap and determined whether it could be prevented via guided bone regeneration during distraction. Another goal was to determine the effect of periosteum in bone healing in a distraction gap.\n\nTwelve sheep mandibles were bilaterally distracted. One side of the 6 sheep mandibles formed the control group; the other side was the study group, from which the periosteum Compound C ic50 was excised and distraction was performed. In the other 6 sheep, on the study side, guided bone regeneration was applied with distraction; on the other study side, guided bone regeneration was applied, and the periosteum

was excised at the distraction. At the end of a 1-week latent period, all subjects were distracted 10 mm (1 mm/d), and we waited 3 months for consolidation. At the end of this period, all animals were killed, and radiologic evaluations of the newly formed bone within the distraction gap were conducted.\n\nThe surface area of the regenerating bone in the membrane groups was significantly higher than in the groups without a membrane. However, no additional effect of the periosteum on the bone surface area was observed. No significant difference between the groups in densitometric values was observed.\n\nConcomitant use of guided bone regeneration with distraction osteogenesis may be the optimal way to generate a flat bone surface within a distraction gap.”
“Plant growth, where one of the key processes is cell division, is controlled by phytohormones. In this mini-review, an analysis of the literature on the molecular mechanisms controlling plant cell proliferation by phytohormones is presented.