The Adequate Intake (AI) was used in place of the EAR for the mic

The Adequate Intake (AI) was used in place of the EAR for the micronutrients without EAR values. The percentage distribution of the macronutrients with respect to the total energy intake was assessed according

to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR). Neratinib chemical structure The AI was established when it was not possible to determine the EAR, and thus, the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances). It is hoped that the AI is enough to meet or exceed the micronutrient requirement and ensure a healthy nutritional status. However, one cannot use the AI values to estimate the requirements; it is only a recommended intake. Analysis of the habitual nutrient intake distribution among the groups with regard to the reference values was done by the PC-SIDE BGJ398 clinical trial – Software for Intake Distribution Estimation- Version 1.02, 1999, taking the EAR as the cut-off point (or AI when an EAR value was not available). The software uses the methodology proposed by Verret (2006) [24] who used mathematical transformations to reduce the distortion that is typically observed in daily intake distribution. Transformations are also used to normalize daily intake data and analyze the variance. It then establishes the mean habitual

intake, the percentile intake distribution and the proportion of the population that is above or below a given limit (in this case, the EAR and AI). The result is the probability of adequate or inadequate intake of a given nutrient expressed in percentages. A probability equal to or above 70% is considered Exoribonuclease adequate. Dietary cholesterol intake was based on the World Health Organization – WHO [25] recommendations, which states that an intake of 300mg or less per day is appropriate. The demographic and anthropometric data were analyzed after dividing the participants of the study into three groups according to their %EWL (< 50; 50┤75 and = 75). The statistical analysis and data representation were done by Excel for Windows 2007, BioEstat 3 [26], PC-SIDE, 1999

and SAS, 2004. All of the recorded continuous variables were tabled as means ± standard deviation or median, accompanied by the maximum and minimum values. The nominal variables were expressed in percentages. The nutrient data were mathematically transformed until normality was achieved [27]. The Student’s t-test and the Mann Whitney test were used to analyze the relationship between the means and the medians, respectively, of continuous and categorical variables when the distribution was normal. When there were more than two sets of data, the means were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by the Tukeytest and by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests when the data did not present a normal distribution under the curve. The significance level was set at 5% (P < .05) for all calculations. The criterion adopted to determine surgical success (%EWL = 50) showed that 84% of the women achieved a successful outcome.

The yield for IgM was quite similar between the different lines

The yield for IgM was quite similar between the different lines

(Fig. 3A); often up to 500 μg/ml as identified in wt controls and only occasionally somewhat reduced but never less than IGF-1R inhibitor half of the wt level analyzed in parallel. Thus, despite some variation, the IgM concentrations in all lines were in good agreement with the levels produced in wt rats kept under the same conditions. Near normal increase in IgM titer was also seen after immunization and in all lines specific IgM levels were similar to wt (not shown). For IgG purification on protein A, the results were split as low and normal levels were identified (Fig. 3B). For HC14, HC17 and wt this revealed 500–1000 μg IgG/ml serum; this level was established from several experiments and agrees with previous findings despite the suboptimal purification of rat IgG using protein A (Bruggemann et al., 1989 and Osborn et Alpelisib al., 2013). A consistently lower amount, ~ 10% of normal levels was identified in HC10 and HC13 animals, where some rats had barely more than 50 μg IgG/ml serum. In these rats specific IgG was lacking

after immunization while HC14 and HC17 produced extensive immune responses frequently similar to wt rats (Fig. 3C). Immunizations were carried out using 4 different antigens, β-galactosidase (β-gal), human progranulin (hPG), ovalbumin (OVA) and hen egg lysozyme (HEL), all of which failed to work efficiently in HC10 and HC13. Previously we showed that a chimeric IgH locus with human VHs, Ds and JH segments linked to rat C-region genes and control sequences, produced highly diverse and near-normal expression levels of antibodies with human idiotypes (Osborn et al., 2013). Here we assess the performance of 4 translocus rat-lines, with silenced endogenous IgH locus (Menoret et al., 2010), carrying the same human VH-region but different rat CH-regions. The comparison was aimed at identifying minimal CH transloci, which would permit near normal expression. In these lines, the IgM expression level with a diverse repertoire of human VH-D-JH

rearrangement was very similar, with surface μ+ B-cells and secreted IgM in serum comparable to wt rats. This suggests that DNA rearrangements with developmental stages from pro to pre to immature B-cells are adequately performed as described (Almqvist and Martensson, Rebamipide 2012). In previous transgenic IgH lines carrying only human CH-genes reduced levels of serum IgM and IgM+ B-cells have been identified (Green and Jakobovits, 1998, Nicholson et al., 1999 and Brüggemann et al., 2007), even with Eμ, Cμ and downstream regions analogous to our transgenic constructs (Lonberg et al., 1994, Mendez et al., 1997 and Nicholson et al., 1999). The suboptimal performance of fully human IgH constructs is likely to reflect imperfect interaction of the human C-genes with the rodent cellular signaling machinery.

But such monitoring is not very effective, highly expensive, and

But such monitoring is not very effective, highly expensive, and by its very nature limited in time and space. It is therefore a highly unsatisfactory way of obtaining data for making reliable predictions of global changes. The great variability in the state of marine ecosystems in time and the vast expanses of the seas and oceans require a more systematic approach to their monitoring. One way of achieving this is by means of remote sensing techniques. Many attempts have already been made to use optical remote sensing methods with the aid of scanning radiometers mounted on board artificial satellites. Widely described in the literature (e.g. Gordon & Morel 1983,

Sathyendranath et al. 2000, Burenkov et al. 2001a,b, Arts 2003, Robinson 2010), these methods are based on the recording and analysis of the spectral properties of the light emerging from the sea water in comparison with the sunlight incident on the sea surface. In other selleck chemical words, they are based on the analysis of the colour of the sea in daylight, which depends on the absorption and scattering of light by the constituents of sea water and is an indirect indicator of their concentrations (including chlorophyll and other phytoplankton pigments). These satellite observations, backed up by in situ test measurements in the sea, enable

the efficient global monitoring of the state of the sea and the processes taking place in it, among them the photosynthesis of organic matter, the release of oxygen and eutrophication. The use

of remote sensing methods in studies of the sea is relatively simple only with respect to the waters of the central oceanic regions, i.e. Case 1 waters according to the optical classification (Morel & Prieur 1977). The great majority of substances affecting the colour of the sea in those regions are autogenic, that is, formed by the local ecosystem – photosynthesis by phytoplankton and the metabolism and decay of marine organisms. In consequence, the spectrum of the light emerging from these waters is correlated with the concentration of phytoplankton and its pigments, principally chlorophyll a, the commonest plant pigment. The concentration of chlorophyll a is therefore an index of phytoplankton concentration, Pembrolizumab water trophicity and other ecological characteristics of a marine basin. Most of the algorithms now in common use for characterizing the state and functioning of marine ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data are thus applicable to these waters: they utilize the correlations of their optical properties with the chlorophyll a concentration in surface waters and the correlation of this concentration with other properties of the aquatic environment (e.g. Platt et al. 1988, 1995, Sathyendranath et al. 1989, Platt & Sathyendranath 1993a, b, Antoine & Morel 1996, Antoine et al. 1996, Woźniak et al. 2003, Ficek et al. 2003, and the collective work by Campbell et al. 2002 and Carr et al. 2006).

Foi-lhe prescrito corticóide nasal para controlo da rinite, esque

Foi-lhe prescrito corticóide nasal para controlo da rinite, esquema

de crise de asma com agonista beta-2 de curta ação inalado e esquema terapêutico em caso de anafilaxia por contacto acidental com LV (dispositivo para autoadministração de adrenalina, anti-histamínico e corticóide sistémico). Em find more março de 2010 apresentava IgE específicas (ImmunoCAP®, Phadia, Uppsala, Suécia) positivas para LV (59,8 KU/L), caseína (53,3 KU/L), α-lactoalbumina (6,92 KU/L) e β-lactoglobulina (0,87 KU/L) (valores normais < 0,10 KU/L), assim como testes cutâneos com extratos comerciais (Laboratórios Leti, Madrid, Espanha) positivos para LV (6 mm de pápula média), caseína (8

mm), α-lactoalbumina (11 mm) e β-lactoglobulina (7 mm). Nessa altura, considerando o quadro clínico, e após explicação detalhada dos riscos e das vantagens do procedimento, é proposto ao adolescente e à família iniciar um protocolo de indução de tolerância às proteínas do LV (detalhado na tabela 1). Foi recomendada a ingestão diária das doses de manutenção, sempre após a refeição e sem exercício físico GSK J4 manufacturer vigoroso nas 2 horas subsequentes. Cerca de 5 dias após ter iniciado a dose de 100 ml 2 vezes por dia (3.a visita), manifestou dor abdominal tipo cólica, reprodutível, imediatamente após a toma da manhã, acompanhada de vómito e dispneia que resolveu com salbutamol. Contactou a equipa médica e foi-lhe dada indicação para reduzir a dose para metade, que manteve sem mais intercorrências até à visita seguinte. Não se verificaram mais intercorrências significativas até ao final do protocolo, cumprindo selleck chemical atualmente uma dieta sem restrições, com indicação para manter ingestão diária mínima de 200 ml de LV. Tem programadas consultas

trimestrais. Em novembro de 2010 repetiu estudo analítico que evidenciou diminuição das IgE específicas para LV (25,8 KU/L) e caseína (35,4 KU/L) e elevação da IgE específica para α-lactoalbumina (23,2 KU/L) e β-lactoglobulina (1,76 KU/L). Os mecanismos imunológicos implicados no aparecimento da alergia alimentar ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos, embora provavelmente resulte de uma ausência de tolerância oral, ou seja, a inexistência de uma resposta ativa do sistema imunitário a um antigénio apresentado pela mucosa gastrintestinal. Nos doentes alérgicos, porém, essa resposta pode ocorrer naturalmente ou ser induzida. São vários os mecanismos responsáveis pela aquisição de tolerância, nomeadamente a indução de anergia clonal, a deleção clonal das células efectoras e a supressão celular ativa.

All these occur prior to motor programming for speech (Ziegler, 2

All these occur prior to motor programming for speech (Ziegler, 2002). Detailed single case studies link aphasic individuals’ patterns of language strengths and weaknesses to difficulties with a particular level of processing. For example, E.E. (Howard, 1995) was held to have a deficit within the phonological output lexicon: PD-166866 solubility dmso he was consistent in the items he was unable to retrieve and was not helped by phonological cues. Howard suggests items were lost from his lexicon. Franklin et al.

(2002) describe M.B. whose output included many phonological errors and whose performance was better on short than long words. M.B.’s difficulty was in assembling phonemes for production. There is a confound in much of the research to date between the level of deficit and the target of intervention. mTOR inhibitor This study employs the same intervention with participants with different levels of deficit enabling us to investigate the relationship between the level of impairment and outcome, in particular any generalisation to untreated items. In a seminal study, Hillis (1989) investigated a cueing therapy designed to improve written naming in two participants with severe aphasia. The participant with more lexical-semantic difficulty (stage 1 on the model above and common to accessing both written and spoken forms for production) improved and the change generalised

to untreated items (and spoken naming). The second participant, with written naming difficulties arising from an orthographic

equivalent to level 2, improved only on written naming of treated items. Hillis argued it is important to determine the source of an individual’s naming difficulty in order to predict the outcome of intervention. However, more recently, Lorenz TCL and Ziegler (2009) did not find a direct relationship between the nature of the deficit and treatment approach. Participants with post-semantic anomia (stages 2 or 3 above) benefited from semantic intervention and also participants with semantic anomia (stage 1 on the model outlined above) benefitted from phonological/orthographic (word form) approach. Neither of these findings would be predicted from a straightforward link between intervention approach and breakdown in level of word production. Fillingham et al. (2006) compared errorless learning with errorful learning. All participants completed a detailed language and neuropsychological assessment battery prior to intervention. Fillingham et al. found strong relationships between response to therapy and underlying neuropsychological profiles, with participants who responded better overall to both types of therapy having better recognition memory, executive/problem solving skills and monitoring ability. Strikingly, however, there was no clear relationship between language skill and therapy outcome.

During this 30-min period, the subjects were required to avoid ea

During this 30-min period, the subjects were required to avoid eating, drinking (other than water for taking risedronate) or taking any other medications. Supplementary calcium lactate (containing 200 mg Ca2 +) was administered orally once daily after dinner from the registration date until the end of the

study. Concomitant use of any drug considered to affect bone metabolism, including vitamin D, was prohibited during the study. The study comprised a screening phase followed by a 12-month double-blind treatment phase, and each subject was required to visit the study site on Day 15 after the first dose of the study drug (with Day 1 being the first treatment day) and then monthly for a total of 12 months. Lumbar spine (L2–L4) Metabolism inhibitor BMD was measured at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months (or upon discontinuation) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a QDR system (model: Hologic QDR-4500 or higher). At each study site, investigators Epigenetic signaling pathway inhibitor carried out “accuracy control calibration” using a lumbar standard phantom attached to the equipment

before the first measurement on the subjects at each measurement date, and checked that BMD was within acceptable limits (± 1.5% of phantom values). X-ray images of thoracic vertebra and lumbar spine were taken at baseline and after 12 months (or upon discontinuation). Two central independent committees were established for DXA assessment and for X-ray assessment. The central committee for DXA assessment confirmed whether subjects fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria and whether Y-27632 2HCl BMD measurement results were eligible. The central committee for X-ray assessment confirmed fragility fracture and evaluated vertebral

fracture. The assessment of prevalent fracture was made if the ratio of the central vertebral height to the anterior (C/A) or posterior vertebral body height (C/P) was less than 0.8, or the ratio of the anterior to posterior vertebral body height (A/P) was less than 0.75, or if the anterior, central, and posterior vertebral heights were decreased by more than 20% compared with those of the adjacent vertebral body in Th4 to L4. A new or worsening vertebral fracture was judged if any one of the three vertebral heights (A, C, or P), had decreased by at least 20% and by 4 mm in a vertebra diagnosed grade progression by semiquantitative assessment [22]. Compliance with treatment was determined by returned tablet counts and interviews with subjects at each clinic visit. DXA and X-ray were not required in subjects who discontinued treatment within 84 days after the first dose of the study drug. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (or upon study discontinuation).

, 2000) The ‘additional’ KaiC proteins from Cyanothece and Croco

, 2000). The ‘additional’ KaiC proteins from Cyanothece and Crocosphaera lack both DXXG motifs and display a proline or arginine aligning to Q115 of S. elongatus-KaiC following the DXXG2 motif. In S. elongatus-KaiC mutation of Q115 to arginine abolishes kaiBC expression ( Nishiwaki et al., 2000). Hence it is very unlikely that these additional KaiC proteins drive kaiBC expression rhythms. Cyanobacteria form a highly diverse group of photoautotrophic prokaryotes, which

I-BET-762 purchase is reflected not only by their various habitats, morphologies, metabolic needs and behavior but also by the complex diversity of their KaiC-based timing systems. When we analyzed the conservation of clock-related genes in a subset of marine cyanobacterial genomes (Table 1), we detected a large genetic diversity. There are strains lacking some or even all Kai components, others encode multiple copies of kaiC and/or kaiB. For other known clock-related components a similar complex pattern appeared. In summary, the diversity in cyanobacterial Kai-based timing systems appears to be evident primarily regarding the core oscillator and the input pathways. The phosphorylation Alectinib molecular weight status of KaiC differs in Cyanobacteria, which possess KaiA and in those, where KaiA is absent. In the first case, KaiC exhibits periodic oscillations of phosphorylation like in S. elongatus. In the other case however, KaiC remains hyperphosphorylated as shown for MED4 in vitro.

Thus, KaiA might be required to turn a timing system into a self-sustained oscillation ( Simons, 2009). Accordingly, diurnal cycles observed in MED4 and other Cyanobacteria lacking KaiA are very likely under the control of an hourglass

instead of a true circadian clock. The KaiABC core clock is not universal when we look at diverse marine genomes of Cyanobacteria. Only KaiC homologs can be found almost always, and even in Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Archaea (Aoki and Onai, 2009 and Dvornyk et al., 2003). Thus, a minimal timing system simply based on KaiC might exist that could 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl represent a general prokaryotic mechanism. Here, UCYN-A presents a fascinating and unprecedented example. Although KaiA and KaiB homologs are absent, output components are present as well as some input components. The exploration of such a minimal KaiC-based system will be an exciting future challenge. Some of the species listed in Table 1 produce cyanotoxins and other secondary metabolites. The most common toxin-producing Cyanobacteria also include the genera Nodularia and Trichodesmium ( Paerl and Otten, 2013). Both of them are also potent formers of the highly visible and harmful cyanobacterial blooms mentioned above and they inhabit brackish water as well as marine ecosystems ( Huisman et al., 2005 and Paerl and Otten, 2013). The circadian clock was shown to improve reproductive fitness in Cyanobacteria living in rhythmic environments ( Gonze et al., 2002, Mori and Johnson, 2001, Ouyang et al., 1998 and Woelfle et al., 2004).

We refined our isolation procedure by sorting the CD73+CD105+ cel

We refined our isolation procedure by sorting the CD73+CD105+ cells based on the presence or absence of CD90. There is, in fact, no consensus on the status of CD90 as a true MSC marker. Some studies have reported that cell populations with high levels of CD90 expression are multipotent MSCs, whereas others have categorized CD90 as a fibroblastic marker [33] and [34]. Care must be taken in interpreting these results since culture conditions have been shown to modulate the immunophenotypes of human stem cells in vitro [35]. However, in defined culture

media, the human skeletal muscle CD73+CD105+CD90− (or CD90−) and CD73+CD105+CD90+ (or CD90+) populations made up 11 ± 8% and 41 ± 2% of total viable cells, respectively ( Fig. 2A). We evaluated the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of the unsorted, CD90− and CD90+ Olaparib cell populations (Fig. 2B) from four independent donors (Table S1). The CD90−

cells differentiated into osteoblasts, as confirmed by the formation of alizarin-stained mineralized nodules; adipocytes, as confirmed by oil red O-stained lipid droplets; and chondrocytes as confirmed by tissue morphology and Alcian blue staining. In contrast, the unsorted cells displayed mixed differentiation potentials, with alizarin-stained mineralization similar to that obtained with the CD90− cells, but limited adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. check details Quantitative densitometry analyses of alizarin red staining revealed 86.4 ± 7.3% coverage for unsorted

cells compared to 95.9 ± 3.7% and 25.1 ± 28.3% for CD90− and CD90+ cells, respectively, while quantitative analyses of oil red O staining revealed 12.5 ± 9.7% coverage for Acyl CoA dehydrogenase unsorted cells compared to 95.4 ± 2.6% and 0.9 ± 1.1% for CD90− and CD90+ cells, respectively. Our results differ from those reported by Nesti et al., who showed that the CD90+-derived subpopulation is enriched in multipotent cells [16]. However, our population was isolated from untraumatized muscle and was expanded in a defined culture medium. The CD90+ cells displayed minimal differentiation towards all three lineages but expressed α-smooth muscle actin when stimulated with TGFβ, suggesting that myofibroblastic progenitors were present, as others have shown [36] and [37] (data not shown). These results indicated that the CD90− cell subpopulation contains hmrMSCs that are capable of differentiating into the lineages observed in HO. To determine whether these CD90− hmrMSCs arise from a common progenitor, we isolated clones from the CD90− population to determine their lineage commitment and differentiation potential. Nine clones derived from a single donor (Table S1) were obtained from 576 plated wells by limiting dilution (clonal efficiency of ~ 1.6%) and were assessed for their differentiation potential toward the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Four clonal progenies (~ 44%) differentiated into all three lineages (Fig.

Despite numerous retrospective studies, however, the use of these

Despite numerous retrospective studies, however, the use of these biomarkers remains controversial because of the sample size limitations due to the rare prevalence of BRONJ, as well as problems in study design in establishing controls and other study criteria (Table 3) [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. Certain studies [6], [7] and [12] have set the reference ranges of the manufacturer as a benchmark comparison; however, reference ranges have not yet been established except in premenopausal women, and even this varied among studies [19].

Other studies [9] and [11] used healthy patients or patients taking BPs as the control group; however, this method is flawed because the true control group would be patients who have undergone dentoalveolar surgery without developing BRONJ. Despite having a carefully matched control group, this study could not find a relation between biomarkers and BRONJ development, with the exception of PTH. AZD1208 concentration INCB024360 CTX, NTX, and DPD are the representative markers that can quantify the amount of bone absorbed by osteoclastic activity, and they have received large interest as risk predictors. However, such collagen degradation

markers have a high degree of analytical and biological variability [20]. More important, even though these markers quantify the amount of degradation molecules which are produced by osteoclastic activity at the time of sampling, they do not necessarily reflect the overall decrease in bone remodeling activity caused by BPs [5] and [12]. Thus,

it is likely that these markers will not be highly meaningful for predicting the degree of dentoalveolar trauma and restorative capacities of bone that shows suppression of osteoclastic activity and subsequent abnormal remodeling, the major pharmacologic Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase effect of BPs. In the present study, the only biomarker that showed a statistical significance for BRONJ development was serum PTH. Ardine et al. [21] suggested the involvement of hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the period preceding BRONJ development. Although conflicting study results do exist, [10] and [22] this inspiration may serve as an important lead for the investigation of the mechanism behind BRONJ, and additional research is needed. Although novel biomarker candidates related to bone remodeling such as serum VEGF [23] and TRACP 5b [5] have been proposed as risk predictors, these have not yielded continuous research. Several reports in the dental literature still recommend that the serum CTX level should be > 150 pg/mL before dental surgery [6], [9], [10] and [24]. However, it is not unusual for patients taking BPs to have serum CTX levels of < 150 pg/mL according to the large-scale FLEX (Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension) [25] and HORIZON (Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly) [26] studies. Moreover, even among persons with levels of < 150 pg/mL, patients that developed BRONJ are very rare [25] and [26].

Badshah et al [11] reported that, DS produced more above ground

Badshah et al. [11] reported that, DS produced more above ground biomass than TP but that at maturity, both CTTP and NTDS had higher above ground biomass and NTTP was the lowest. Leaf area per tiller varied significantly among the treatments at all growth stages of the crop. It also varied significantly among the establishment methods at all sampling dates owing to high population density under DS resulting in increased mutual shading of plants [12] and a consequent acceleration

Olaparib mw in leaf senescence [13]. Leaf area gradually increased from Max. to HD stage and then decreased by 34% in CTTP and 45% in NTTP from 12DAH–24DAH but was similar (35%) for DS under either CT or NT. Leaf area was reduced more in NTTP than CTTP owing to early drying of plants resulting from the shallower root system under NT. This result agrees with that of Huang et al. [7]. Badshah et al. [11] reported that, LAI increased up to the BT stage under TP and the HD stage under DS under both CT and NT and then gradually declined up to 24DAH. CTTP had higher LAI than NTTP at all crop growth stages. Similarly, CTDS had higher LAI than NTDS. Grain yield is a function of biomass accumulation from heading to maturity and translocation to kernels of reserve pre-stored before heading [14]. It has often been suggested

that rice yield increase depends more Rebamipide on translocation

to kernels of biomass accumulated before heading than on biomass accumulation from heading to maturity [15] and [16]. CTTP and NTTP showed significantly higher find more number of spikelets per cm of panicle than CTDS and NTDS owing to excessive tillering leading to small panicle size and further reduced grain yield [3] and [4]. Panicle dry weight at MA was higher under TP than DS under either CT or NT owing to the sink/source relationship. TP had an approximately 12% longer and larger sink (heavier panicle) than DS. Increasing spikelet number per panicle may be a better approach to increase sink size [17] and [18] and sink size (spikelet number per unit land area) is the primary determinant of the rice yield [19]. Grain yield was higher in CTTP owing to a larger sink size (heavier panicle, more spikelets in per cm length of panicle) than under DS although weather parameters (temperature, sunshine hours and rainfall) were similar both in TP and in DS (Table 2). There was a positive correlation between panicle number and maximum tillers and NTTP always produced lower numbers of tillers than CTTP. However, PBTR was higher in NTTP than in CTTP, and both NTTP and CTTP had similar sinks (number of spikelet per cm of panicle). Increasing maximum tiller number in NTTP by increasing plant populations may increase rice yield.