Self-reported abstinence from smoking was assessed using the Time

Self-reported abstinence from smoking was assessed using the Timeline Followback (Fals-Stewart et al., 2000) method at each weekly visit and verified with CO measurements of <8 ppm. The Withdrawal Scale for Tobacco (WST), a modification of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (Hughes and Hatsukami, 1986), was used to assess severity of Bicalutamide Casodex nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The WST lists each withdrawal symptom and asks participants to rate their experience over 24hr prior to each weekly study visit on a 5-point scale from 0 (none) to 4 (Severe). For the purpose of this study, we used only the Hunger item from the WST. Procedures For a complete description of procedures for the randomized controlled trial, see Winhusen et al. (2010).

Briefly, the study was an 11-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multisite trial of OROS-MPH versus placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio, using computer-generated, site-stratified randomization), both of which were offered in combination with transdermal NRT and counseling, as a treatment for smoking cessation in adults with ADHD (N = 255). OROS-MPH was titrated to a maximum of 72mg/day over the first 2 weeks of the study and continued at the maximum tolerated dose until the end of the active treatment period (Week 11). All participants received brief weekly individual smoking-cessation counseling for 11 weeks and 21mg/day nicotine patch starting on the smoking quit day (Day 27) through study week 11. The primary efficacy endpoint for smoking cessation was prolonged abstinence during study weeks 7�C10 of the trial, which allowed a 2-week grace period after the target quit date.

Prolonged abstinence was defined as a self-report of not smoking either (a) once per day for seven consecutive days or (b) at least once per week for two consecutive weeks (Hughes, 2003) during study weeks 7�C10. As noted previously, the main outcome of the trial suggested no effect of OROS-MPH on prolonged abstinence (Winhusen et al., 2010). The two dependent variables in our analyses were percent weight change and hunger. Because assessments of weight were conducted only at three points during the trial (i.e., baseline, Week 6, and Week 11), only the study participants (n = 215) who completed the active treatment phase of the study were included in this analysis, as we determined that the time from baseline to the Week 6 study visit (i.e., less than 2 weeks after the target quit GSK-3 date) was not a sufficient period over which to capture OROS-MPH��s effects on weight gain during a quit attempt. Thus, our primary measure of weight change was the percent change in body weight between baseline and Week 11 (i.e., end of active treatment phase).

Smoking topography data were not collected Immediately after par

Smoking topography data were not collected. Immediately after participants extinguished the cigarette, they completed post-cigarette assessments identical to the pre-cigarette assessments except for the inclusion of an additional Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ; see Experimental Session Measures section). As previously reported, subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette following normal smoking have high reliability (Perkins et al., 2012). Baseline Session Measures Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV NonPatient Edition The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses for eligibility purposes (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002).

Fagerstr?m Test of Nicotine Dependence The Fagerstr?m Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a well-validated six-item measure of nicotine-dependence severity (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerstr?m, 1991). Smoking History Questionnaire An author-constructed smoking history questionnaire was used to assess basic information including number of cigarettes smoked per day, age of smoking onset, and other relevant smoking characteristics. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index The Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss et al., 1986) is a 16-item questionnaire measuring the extent to which one fears the potential negative consequences of anxiety-related symptoms and sensations (e.g., ��It scares me when I feel shaky��). Items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (very little) to 4 (very much), and a total score was computed.

The ASI has three lower order factors (physical, psychological, and social concerns) that all load on a single common global factor (Zinbarg, Barlow, & Brown, 1997). Here, we utilized the total ASI score because: (a) it represents the global AS factor and thus incorporates general sensitivity to a variety of anxiety-causing situations that may each influence smoking; and (b) we wished to reduce the number of statistical tests performed and corresponding type-I error rates. The ASI total scale has been shown to possess good psychometric properties and exhibits excellent discriminant validity from trait anxiety and other constructs (McNally, 2002; Peterson & Heilbronner, 1987; Zvolensky, Kotov, Antipova, & Schmidt, 2005). The internal consistency of the ASI in this sample was good (Cronbach��s �� = .85).

The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire��Short Form Anxious Arousal Subscale The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Batimastat Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson et al., 1995) is a self-report measure of affective symptoms in the past week. Participants indicate how much they have experienced each symptom on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not at all to 5 = extremely). Only the 17-item Anxious Arousal subscale (MASQ-AA) was used in this report as it addresses symptoms of somatic tension and arousal (e.g.

As reported in [32]

As reported in [32] blog of sinaling pathways and shown in Table 1, the hGrx1-roGFP2 biosensor is not sensitive to direct interaction with micromolar H2O2 concentrations. However, millimolar H2O2 might lead to a direct oxidation of the probe. Since, however, H2O2 is likely to be at least partially detoxified by the antioxidative defense systems of the parasite-host cell unit, an oxidizing effect on the glutathione system also needs to be considered. The long and steady increase in the ratio after treatment with THBP might be associated to the fact that TBHP is, in contrast to H2O2, not detoxified by red blood cell catalase and is therefore likely to have more pronounced and longer-lasting effects. Induction of nitrosative stress using the peroxynitrite generator SIN-1 also led to a rapid ratio change.

Therefore, we assume that ROS and RNS do affect EGSH in P. falciparum and that hGrx1-roGFP2 seems to be a suitable tool to monitor these changes in living cells. However, when using the redox probe, one has to take into account that some compounds, independent from glutathione, might also directly interact with the probe. Thus, before testing the effects of antimalarial compounds on the ratio of the probe in living parasites, we characterized their direct in vitro interaction with recombinant hGrx1-roGFP2. Table 1 and Figs. 3 and S5 summarize the data for different concentrations and incubation times. Whereas high concentrations of oxidizing agents and redox cyclers such as GSSG, diamide, H2O2, MB, and PYO led to direct interactions with the probe, antimalarial drugs including the quinolines and artemisinin derivatives did not cause a major increase in the fluorescence ratio even at concentrations up to 100 ��M and after 24 h incubation.

These data can of course only be indirectly compared to the situation in vivo, where a direct interaction is hindered by multiple cell membranes, degradation of the stressors, and binding to other proteins. However, the data are important when interpreting the results described in the next paragraph. Whereas compounds such as MB might induce changes in the probe via direct interaction and by acting on the cellular redox metabolism, the direct interactions of the other drugs with the probe seem to be negligible. Furthermore, effects induced by diamide or H2O2 might recover more rapidly than those induced by potent redox cyclers such as MB and pyocyanin.

Effects of antimalarial drugs on the cytosolic glutathione redox potential In order to investigate whether hGrx1-roGFP2 can be used to monitor changes in EGSH after the treatment of cell cultures with antimalarial drugs, we incubated the Plasmodium falciparum strains 3D7 and Dd2 with different concentrations of MB, quinoline, and artemisinin derivatives Brefeldin_A in short-term (5 min), medium-term (4 h), and long-term (24 h) experiments (Table 2, Figs. 4�C7).

8?10 While some flavonoids were already reported to activate PPAR

8?10 While some flavonoids were already reported to activate PPAR��,42,43 this is the first report demonstrating PPAR�� activation by a flavonolignan-type compound. In summary, it is reported for the first time that the flavonolignan isosilybin A (3) from the milk thistle seed extract silymarin acts as a partial PPAR�� find protocol agonist. Being a new-scaffold PPAR�� activator, 3 might serve as a lead for future development of new PPAR�� agonists. The question as to whether PPAR�� activation by 3 might be clinically relevant for the use of silymarin as an herbal remedy cannot be conclusively answered yet and deserves further investigation. Experimental Section Chemicals, Cell Culture Reagents, and Plasmids Dulbecco��s modified Eagle��s medium (DMEM), containing 4.

5 g/L glucose, and l-glutamine were purchased from Lonza (Basel, Switzerland). Fetal bovine serum (FBS) was from Gibco (Lofer, Austria). Silymarin was purchased from Sigma (SO-292-10g). Taxifolin (7) was purchased from Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany (5797.2). Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were isolated and structurally identified as described previously.44 Silydianin (6) was isolated and structurally identified as described.45 The isolation of silychristin (5) is described below. The PPAR�� antagonist T0070907 was purchased from Cayman (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), and pioglitazone was from Molekula Ltd. (Shaftesbury, UK). Solvents used for HPLC analyses were of gradient grade. The investigated compounds or dried extracts were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), aliquoted, and stored at ?20 ��C for further use.

The final concentration of the solvent vehicle DMSO was 0.1% or lower in all performed experiments. The expression plasmid with human PPAR�� (pSG5-PL-hPPAR-gamma1)46 was provided by Prof. Beatrice Desvergne and Prof. Walter Wahli (Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland), and the luciferase reporter plasmid (tk-PPREx3-luc)47 was kindly supplied by Prof. Ronald M. Evans (Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA, USA). All other chemicals were obtained from Sigma�CAldrich (Vienna, Austria). Isolation of Silychristin (5) Isolation was accomplished by preparative HPLC separation of silymarin on a Varian Prep Star SD-1 solvent delivery system equipped with a Dynamax UV-1 absorbance detector, which was set to 280 nm. A 100 mg aliquot of silymarin was dissolved in 0.

5 mL of DMSO and 2 mL of methanol and sonicated, and the solution was centrifuged. An Ultra SEP ES RP-18 column (250 �� 20 mm, 10 ��m) was used as a stationary phase, and a gradient of methanol in water (0�C40 min: methanol�Cwater 30:70�C55:45; 40�C50 min 55:45�C100:0) was used as mobile phase (flow rate: 6 mL/min). The peak of 5 (tR 38 min) was collected, and the Cilengitide solvent was evaporated. A yellowish powder (12 mg) was obtained.

001) Patients with tumors with less than five mitoses per 50 HPF

001). Patients with tumors with less than five mitoses per 50 HPFs had a median survival time of 6.5 years, whereas those with more than five mitoses have a median survival of 2.9 years (p<0.001). For size <5 and >5 cm, the corresponding data were 7.4 and 3.4 years (p<0.001). Median survival time for tumor without atypia was 5.4 years, focal nuclear atypia, 2.5 years, and diffuse nuclear atypia, 2.2 years (p<0.001). For patients with no identified coagulative necrosis, the median survival time was 4.4 years compared with 3.8 years for those with coagulative necrosis (p=0.006). In patients with ulceration, hemorrhage, and spindle or epithelioid cell types, there were no significant differences in overall survival. In a Cox univariate model, mean roundness (p<0.001), mean SL ratio (p=0.

017), and number of nuclei (p=0.043) were significant predictors of overall survival, whereas Feret diameter was not (p=0.94) (Figure 2). When tumors were stratified according to site, mean roundness was a significant predictor of overall survival both in the gastric (p=0.032) and small intestinal GISTs (p=0.047). Figure 2 Survival of patients with median roundness less than and more than 0.4061 (mean value). Mean roundness and nuclear SL ratio showed a strong correlation (0.919), and therefore, only one of these was used in multivariate Cox model calculations. Mean roundness was arbitrarily chosen. The result of the Cox proportional hazard analysis is presented in Table 3. The age at diagnosis was divided into decades, and the new values were used as continuous variables.

Location of primary tumor was divided into three categories: site other than stomach or small bowl, gastric location, or location in the small bowel, with values of 0, 1, or 2, respectively. These were used as categorical values. Size of tumor was likewise divided into three categories with unknown size, size <5 cm, and size >5 cm and used as categorical values. Mean roundness and number of nuclei were not independently significant in a model including sex, age at diagnosis, location of primary tumor, size, mitoses, nuclear atypia, coagulative necrosis, and hemorrhage. Table 3 Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with demographic, morphologic, and morphometric variables Discussion Number of mitoses and tumor size are currently regarded as the most helpful variables for evaluation of malignancy of GISTs, and the results of our study confirm their influence on overall survival in our series of 442 cases from Norway.

This supports the usefulness of the classification according to a consensus risk group stratification system based on maximum tumor size and mitotic count (Fletcher et al. Cilengitide 2002). Many techniques have been proposed for accurately predicting prognosis for GISTs. Chromosomal aberrations with loss of chromosomes 9 and 1 have been found to be quite specific for malignant GISTs (Debiec-Rychter et al. 2001).

CYFRA 21-1 concentrations differed according to the tumour size a

CYFRA 21-1 concentrations differed according to the tumour size and vascular invasion, but not according to the number of tumours or nodal status. These results suggested that CYFRA 21-1 should be Sorafenib VEGFR-2 useful for disease staging and monitoring in patients with ICC. In conclusion, serum CYFRA 21-1 should be a useful diagnostic test for ICC given its outstanding sensitivity. Serum CYFRA 21-1 concentrations reflected differences in ICC tumour burden, so this marker also could be applied to staging and monitoring. Prospective studies should be performed to evaluate the real impact of serum CYFRA 21-1 as a marker for ICC.
Gastrin was originally described as a gastrointestinal (GI) regulatory peptide whose principal function was to stimulate postprandial gastric acid secretion.

However, in addition to its recognised role in the physiological regulation of acid secretion, another biological property attributed to gastrin is its trophic effects. A prospective study by Thorburn et al (1998) suggested that hypergastrinemia is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), and numerous studies have demonstrated that gastrin stimulates the growth of malignant colorectal adenocarcinomas (Wang et al, 1996; Malecka-Panas et al, 1997; Baldwin & Shulkes, 1998; Nakata et al, 1998; Koh et al, 1999; Stepan et al, 1999; Smith & Watson, 2000). Transgenic mice overexpressing progastrin and glycine-extended gastrin demonstrate enhanced colonic proliferation (Wang et al, 1996; Koh et al, 1999), and conversely, gastrin-deficient mice manifest decreased colonic proliferation (Koh et al, 1997).

Repression of the gastrin gene in human colon cancer cells by antisense gastrin RNA yields a significant growth inhibition of these cells, suggesting that gastrin expression may be required for colon tumour progression (Singh et al, 1996). Although these studies all suggest a role for gastrin in the pathogenesis of CRC, little is known regarding the factors and mechanisms involved in mediating the trophic properties of this important peptide. Overwhelming evidence derived from studies involving Anacetrapib primary colon tumours of both hereditary and sporadic origin has implicated aberrations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene and ��-catenin oncogene in the pathogenesis of CRC (Kinzler & Vogelstein, 1996; Mirabelli-Primdahl et al, 1999; Miyaki et al, 1999; Samowitz et al, 1999). Although multiple mechanisms may induce the neoplastic growth of colorectal tumours, ��-catenin appears to play a pivotal role in this process.

5% in HCC patients

5% in HCC patients. Rucaparib order Table 2 Sensitivity of tumour markers in patients with primary liver cancer Analysis of ROC curves Receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed to compare the ability of the four markers to differentiate between patients with malignant and benign liver disease. Curves for HCC (Figure 2) and ICC (Figure 3) in distinction to benign liver disease are illustrated. For patients with HCC, the AUC was 0.81��0.03, 0.61��0.04, 0.64��0.03, and 0.58��0.04 for AFP, CEA, CA 19-9, and CYFRA 21-1, respectively. The AUC for AFP differed significantly from that for other markers (P<0.0001). For patients with ICC, the AUC was 0.53��0.08, 0.81��0.05, 0.86��0.06, and 0.95��0.03 for AFP, CEA, CA 19-9, and CYFRA 21-1, respectively. A significant difference was noted between the AUC for CYFRA 21-1 and those for CEA (P=0.

0196) and AFP (P<0.0001); on the other hand, no significant difference was noted between the AUC for CYFRA 21-1 and that for CA 19-9 (P=0.0913). In the ICC group, ROC analysis demonstrated that CYFRA 21-1 was superior to the other markers. Figure 2 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and benign liver disease were constructed. Figure 3 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and benign liver disease were constructed. CYFRA 21-1 and pathologic variables in patients with ICC For 23 patients with ICC, CYFRA 21-1 concentrations were compared according to disease stage (Table 3, Figure 4). Median and interquartile range of serum CYFRA 21-1 concentrations were 3.

2 (3.1�C3.8), 4.4 (3.1�C7.6), and 11.5 (7.8�C12.2) for stages I/II, III, and IV, respectively. An overall tendency towards an increase in serum concentration was observed from stages I/II to IV, and a significant difference was noted (Kruskal�CWallis test, P=0.0102). No significant difference was evident for serum CEA or CA 19-9 concentration between tumour stages (Kruskal�CWallis test; P=0.0774 and 0.1252, respectively). The serum CYFRA 21-1 concentration also differed significantly according to the T factor by the TNM classification (Table 3, Figure 4). Median and interquartile ranges of serum CYFRA 21-1 concentrations were 3.1 (2.1�C3.7), 4.4 (3.2�C6.4), and 11.5 (7.8�C12.2) for T1/2, T3, and T4, respectively (Kruskal�CWallis test, P=0.0038). Tumour size and vascular invasion were related to serum CYFRA 21-1 concentration, while serum CYFRA 21-1 concentration did not differ according to nodal status. Table 3 Serum CYFRA 21-1 concentrations of 23 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Figure 4 Distribution of individual serum CYFRA 21-1 values Anacetrapib according to stage (upper) and T factor (lower) in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Results Participants A total

Results Participants A total of 240 of the original 243 participants in the randomized clinical trial were included in the analyses. Three were excluded because they could not actively participate in the trial (one pregnancy prior to initial quit attempt and two moved out of area prior to initial quit attempt). The sample consisted of 167 males and 73 females; 39% of the sample was married, and the majority was Caucasian (78%). Approximately 10% of the sample reported a history of depression. Of the 240 participants, 42 (17.5%) were not able to make a successful 24-hr quit attempt within the 8 weeks of active treatment. Twenty-one (50%) of those unable to make a quit attempt received active treatment (selegiline). The majority (85%) of those in the SQA group achieved 24-hr abstinence at their initial quit date of the treatment study.

Randomized Clinical Trial There were no statistically significant differences between those who received active medication and those who received placebo at either the 8-, 25-, or 52-week follow-ups. Predictors of SQA Table 1 shows the percentage and/or means and SDs for each of the predictor variables measured at baseline and effect sizes for the univariate analyses. In the univariate analyses, mFTQ, F(1, 238) = 4.15, p = .04; �� = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.01�C0.68, the BIS score, F(1, 238) = 8.72, p = .004; �� = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.16�C0.84, and heart rate, F(1, 238) = 6.31, p = .01; �� = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.09�C0.76, were significant predictors of SQA. In the logistic regression model, participants who were successful in their quit attempt had lower mFTQ scores, W (1) = 4.

9, p = .03; OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.74�C0.98, higher BIS scores, W (1) = 9.8, p = .002; OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.07�C1.35, and lower baseline heart rates, W (1) = 5.1, p = .02; OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93�C0.99, than those unable to quit for at least 24 hr. There were no significant interactions. See Table 2. Table 1. Percentages and/or Means (SDs in parentheses) of Baseline Variables and Effect Sizes for the Univariate Analyses by Successful Versus No SQA Table 2. Logistic Regression Model of Independent Predictors of Successful Quit Attempt and Interactions Predictors of GSK-3 52-Week Abstinence Table 3 shows the percentage and/or means and SDs for each of the predictor variables measured at baseline and effect sizes for the univariate analyses. Gender was the only predictor of abstinence at 1 year with females more likely to be abstinent at the 52-week follow-up than males, ��2 (1) = 4.5, p = .03; OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.05�C3.84. No other factors were significant. Table 3.

In high-income countries, smoke-free policies have reduced involu

In high-income countries, smoke-free policies have reduced involuntary exposure to toxic secondhand tobacco smoke, reduced tobacco consumption, and promoted phase 3 quitting (Brownson, Hopkins, & Wakefield, 2002; Fichtenberg & Glantz, 2002). Although smokers�� respect for the law may account for such changes, smoke-free laws presumably reflect and communicate social norms around smoking behavior in public places, and research has generally focused on how smoke-free policies change smokers�� behavior by decreasing the social acceptability of smoking (Hamilton, Biener, & Brennan, 2008; Jacobson & Zapawa, 2001; Wasserman, Manning, Newhouse, & Winkler, 1991). Nevertheless, efforts to illustrate empirically that smoke-free policies reduce the social acceptability of smoking have provided inconsistent results (Biener, Abrams, Follick, & Dean, 1989; Biener et al.

, 1999; Gottlieb, Eriksen, Lovato, Weinstein, & Green, 1990; Hamilton et al., 2008). Moreover, little research has been undertaken to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in low- and middle-income countries, where tobacco-attributable mortality is increasing (Mathers & Loncar, 2006). Smoke-free policies in Mexico and Uruguay contrasted strikingly at the time of data collection for the present study. Uruguay’s 2006 comprehensive smoke-free policy prohibited smoking in all enclosed workplaces including restaurants and bars, whereas Mexico smoke-free policy at that time was limited mainly to government buildings and hospitals (Thrasher et al., 2006).

Nevertheless, polling data from Mexico and Uruguay indicate widespread public support for smoke-free policies. In 2006, after smoke-free policy implementation in Uruguay, 92% of urban Uruguayan adults indicated that secondhand smoke (SHS) was dangerous and 80% were in favor of the law (Sebri��, Schoj, & Glantz, 2008). Polls conducted among urban-dwelling adults in Mexico in 2007 indicated similarly high levels of support for smoke-free policies (80%�C83%) in enclosed public areas and workplaces (Abundis, 2008). Slightly higher levels of support for smoke-free policies have been found among Mexican youth (Bird et al., 2007), with the percentage of urban youth supporting smoke-free policies increasing from 2003 to 2006 (Vald��s-Salgado et al., 2006). No analyses have been undertaken in either Mexico or Uruguay to assess which factors predict support for smoke-free policies or to assess Brefeldin_A other attitudinal and normative factors that are presumably associated with smoke-free policies. Furthermore, no data are available on the prevalence of voluntary smoke-free policies either in Mexico or in Uruguay before smoke-free policy implementation.

We found a significant difference in tumorigenicity between CD49f

We found a significant difference in tumorigenicity between CD49fhigh and CD49flow cells. CD49fhigh cells very frequently formed tumors with histological features of parental ones while CD49flow cells Crizotinib NSCLC were not tumorigenic (HGC-1 to -5, Table 1). Moreover, cell surface antigen profiles were maintained in tumors formed by injection of CD49fhigh cells (Figure S2), indicating that CD49fhigh cells retained self-renewal and differentiation potencies. We found that the cell surface antigen profiles of PDTX cells (HGC-1 to -5) were altered when passage number exceeded 12 (data not shown), possibly because highly tumorigenic subpopulations were selected during in vivo passages, as has been reported in pancreatic cancer [28]. We thus examined whether CD49fhigh cells were more tumorigenic than CD49flow cells using newly-dissected gastric tumors (HGC-6 to -15, Table 1).

We found that CD49fhigh cells always formed tumors with histological features of parental ones, while CD49flow cells were not tumorigenic, independent of the tumor type (Table 1 and Figure 1: Figure 1A for a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma from patient #8 and Figure 1B for a poorly-differentiated one from patient #9). There was a significant difference between CD49fhigh and CD49flow cells on their tumorigenicity (Table 1). We thus concluded that CD49f is a useful marker for gastric TICs. Figure 1 CD49fhigh cells form tumors while CD49flow cells do not.

CD49f is Localized at the Epithelial-stromal Interface in the Normal Gastric Mucosa, but is Found on Apical, Lateral and Basal Surfaces in Some Tumor Cells We immunohistochemically examined the localization of CD49f in the tumor and non-tumor tissues in the stomach, and found CD49f at the epithelial-stromal interface in the normal gastric mucosa (Figure 2A). The result is consistent with the report that CD49f functions as a subunit of receptors for laminins, major proteins in the basal lamina. Gastric mucosae with chronic gastritis showed expression of CD49f along the basal lamina of the gastric foveolae as in normal ones (Figure 2B), and similar expression pattern was found in the intestinal metaplasia (Figure 2C). In tumor cells, however, expression of CD49f was diversified. It was found at the epithelial-stromal interface in some tumor cells (Figure 2G), but it was detected on apical, lateral and basal surfaces in some cells, and some cells only weakly expressed it (Figure 2E).

It is interesting that in gastric dysplasias adjacent to carcinoma, Drug_discovery CD49f was found on not only basal but also lateral surfaces, as in gastric carcinomas (Figure 2D), indicating that disorganized expression of CD49f might not be a result but a cause of tumorigenesis. A small proportion of tumor cells expressing CD49f all along the cell membrane (Figure 2E) may possibly represent gastric TICs. Figure 2 Localization of CD49f in gastric tissues.