Several of these products and processes have reached commercial u

Several of these products and processes have reached commercial utility, while others are in advanced development. The objective

of this mini-review is to describe processes currently used by industry and those in developmental stages and close to commercialization primarily from non-Saccharomyces CAL-101 cell line yeasts with an emphasis on new opportunities. The utility of S. cerevisiae in heterologous production of selected products is also described.”
“Sex pheromone production in the pheromone gland (PG) of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is mediated by store-operated channels (SOCs) acting downstream of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) binding. Although recent studies have implicated STIM1 and Orai1 as essential components of SOCs, little is known about the molecular nature of the SOCs involved

in sex pheromone production. In this study we cloned silkmoth homologs of STIM1 and Orai1 and sought to determine whether they comprise the PG SOC pathway. BmSTIM1 is expressed in multiple tissues and, in the PG, is encoded by two transcripts of differing size. BmOrai1A and BmOrai1B, which are identical this website except for a 37-residue N-terminal truncation in BmOrai1B, arise from alternative splicing of the bmorai1 locus and are expressed as independent transcripts in various tissues. In the PG, only BmOrai1B is actively transcribed. Fluorescent chimeras demonstrated that BmSTIM1 expression is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas both BmOrai1A and BmOrai1B localize to the cell surface. In Ca(2+)-free medium, thapsigargin-mediated depletion of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) Selleck AZD7762 stores resulted in redistribution of BmSTIM1 to the plasma membrane, but only when the BmOrai1 homologs were also overexpressed. Translocation was dependent on the BmSTIM1 C terminus “CRAC activation domain.” Ala mutation of Lys(380), Lys(383), Lys(384), Arg(382), and Arg(385) suggests that translocation involves electrostatic interactions. Translocation was also seen following PBAN stimulation in cells co-expressing BmSTIM1, BmOrai1B, and the PBAN receptor. In vivo RNA interference-mediated knockdown of BmSTIM1 and BmOrai1 significantly

reduced sex pheromone production without affecting cell viability.”
“Background: Drawing conclusions from systematic reviews of test accuracy studies without considering the methodological quality ( risk of bias) of included studies may lead to unwarranted optimism about the value of the test(s) under study. We sought to identify to what extent the results of quality assessment of included studies are incorporated in the conclusions of diagnostic accuracy reviews. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for test accuracy reviews published between May and September 2012. We examined the abstracts and main texts of these reviews to see whether and how the results of quality assessment were linked to the accuracy estimates when drawing conclusions. Results: We included 65 reviews of which 53 contained a meta-analysis.

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