When operations can be performed within the focus of attention, age differences in interference control may be more easily detected in neural measures than behavioral ones, whereas behavioral differences are more likely to occur in tasks that require retrieval of information into the focus. Our analysis suggests that age differences in interference
control have multiple sources, but also offer multiple opportunities for compensation and intervention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) represent an important class of post-translational modifications that preserve and amplify the actions of nitric oxide and regulate enzyme activity. Several regulatory proteins are now verified targets of cellular S-nitrosation, and the direct detection of S-nitrosated residues in proteins has become essential to better understand RSNO-mediated PF-00299804 molecular weight signaling. Current RSNO detection depends on indirect assays that limit their overall specificity and reliability. Herein, we report the reaction of S-nitrosated cysteine, glutathione, and a mutated C1655 alkyl hydroperoxide reductase with the water-soluble phosphine tris(4,6-dimethyl-3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine
trisodium salt hydrate (TXPTS) A combination of NMR and MS techniques reveals that these reactions produce covalent S-alkylphosphonium ion adducts (with
S P connectivity), TXPTS oxide, and a TXPTS-derived aza-ylide. Mechanistically, this reaction may proceed through an 5-substituted BMS-777607 research buy aza-ylide or the direct displacement of nitroxyl from the RSNO group. This work provides a new means for detecting and quantifying S-nitrosated species in solution and suggests that phosphines may be useful tools for understanding the complex physiological roles of S-nitrosation and its implications in cell signaling and homeostasis.”
“Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is endemic in 52 countries. There is a critical need to further our understanding of the host response during disease and infection, as millions of individuals are still at risk of developing blinding sequelae. Infection of the conjunctival epithelial cells by the causative bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Nepicastat nmr stimulates an acute host response. The main clinical feature is a follicular conjunctivitis that is incompletely defined at the tissue-specific gene expression and molecular levels. To explore the features of disease and the response to infection, we measured host gene expression in conjunctival samples from Gambian children with active trachoma and healthy controls. Genome-wide expression and transcription network analysis identified signatures characteristic of the expected infiltrating immune cell populations, such as neutrophils and T/B lymphocytes.