\n\nResults: Univariate buy LY3023414 analyses indicate that heritability for mean
daily energy (kcal) and macronutrient (g) intakes was moderate, ranging from 0.34(95% CI: 0.22, 0.46) to 0.42 (0.31, 0.53). Genetic effects also accounted for 0.28 (0.16, 0.40) of the variance-in percent of energy from lipids, while only environmental (shared and unique) effects accounted for the variance in percent of energy from proteins and carbohydrates. The shared environment did not contribute to variations in daily intakes for most of the nutritional variables under study. Multivariate analyses suggest the presence of macronutrient-specific genetic influences for lipids and carbohydrates, estimated at 0.12 (0.04, 0.19) and 0.20 (0.11, 029) respectively.\n\nConclusions: The unique environment (i.e., not shared by family members) has the largest influence on variances in daily energy and macronutrient intakes in 9-year-old children. This finding underscores the need to take obesogenic environments into account when planning dietary interventions for younger populations. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Chronic cannabis use can induce psychotic states that resemble schizophrenia. Yet, schizophrenic patients often smoke cannabis as a form of self-medication to counter the aversive symptoms of schizophrenia.
We recently demonstrated an ameliorating effect of cannabinoid self-administration (SA) on negative and cognitive 17-AAG schizophrenia-like symptoms induced experimentally by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). Whether cannabinoid see more SA alleviates or exacerbates schizophrenia-like positive symptoms is still unclear.\n\nThis follow-up study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-administered cannabinoid on PCP-induced schizotypic positive symptoms in adult rats.\n\nMale rats were trained to self-administer either the cannabinoid
CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 12.5 mu g/kg/infusion) or its vehicle (Veh) intravenously. The effects of acute and chronic intermittent intraperitoneal administration of PCP (2.5 mg/kg) on motor parameters were then tested in Veh-SA and WIN-SA.\n\nCannabinoid SA significantly attenuated the psychotomimetic effects of PCP exposure observed in control rats. Following acute PCP administration, WIN-SA animals displayed more frequent rearing and lower anxiety-like profile than Veh-SA rats. WIN-SA rats also exhibited lower behavioural sensitisation to chronic PCP treatment as demonstrated by reduced hyperlocomotion in response to an acute PCP challenge. In addition, parallel experiments performed in experimenter-administered rats that received WIN at comparable SA doses confirmed the ameliorating effects of cannabinoid exposure on PCP-induced schizotypic behaviours, indicating that motivational effects were not responsible for the ameliorative effects of cannabinoids.