We provide evidence that use of germline-specific proximal 3′ spl

We provide evidence that use of germline-specific proximal 3′ splice sites is conserved across Caenorhabditis

species. We propose that there are differences between germline and somatic cells in the way that the basal splicing machinery functions to determine the intron terminus.”
“In mammalian cells, the degradation of mRNAs that have AU-rich elements in their 3′-untranslated regions is accelerated by the binding of proteins FK228 price that contain two CCCH-zinc-finger-domains. Three CCCH zinc-finger proteins, TbZFP1, TbZFP2, and TbZFP3, have been shown to have roles in trypanosome differentiation. We here studied another protein, ZC3H18, which has two CCCH zinc finger domains. The ZC3H18

gene is not essential in bloodstream forms, but in an in vitro model of differentiation, depletion of ZC3H18 delayed the transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes to the procyclic form that grows in the Tsetse fly. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Many adverse drug reactions leading to hepatotoxicity are caused selleck compound by the cytochrome P450-dependent activation of non-toxic drugs or chemicals into reactive metabolites. To this end, adenoviruses were used as a tool to efficiently deliver specific CYP genes into cultured cells (i.e., human hepatoma cell line HepG2). Recombinant-defective adenoviral vectors encoding for genes CYP3A4 (Adv-CYP3A4), CYP2E1 (Adv-CYP2E1), CYP2A6 (Adv-CYP2A6) and CYP1A2 (Adv-CYP1A2) were used to confer specific CYP drug metabolic capabilities to HepG2 cells. Upgraded cells transiently expressed single specific cytochrome P450 enzymatic activities in terms of the number of the infecting virus particles used in their transduction. HepG2 cells transduced with adenoviruses and wild HepG2 cells cultured in 96 well-plates selleckchem were incubated in the presence of model compounds, some of which can be metabolized to reactive metabolites. After compound exposure, cell viability was assessed by the commonly used MTT

assay. The results confirm that the cell-based assay is a valuable tool in toxicology assessments and high-throughput screenings to detect cytotoxicity mediated by cytochrome P450 biotransformation in preclinical drug development. The assay also has a potential applicability in other industrial sectors such as the chemical industry. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Six alternating conjugated copolymers (PL1-PL6) of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thiophene, containing electron-withdrawing oxadiazole (OXD), ester, or alkyl as side chains, were synthesized by Stille coupling reaction. The structures of the polymers were confirmed, and their thermal, optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties were investigated.

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