We hypothesized that varus

We hypothesized that varus 3-Methyladenine datasheet thrust presence is associated with greater knee frontal plane dynamic movement during the stance phase of gait.

Methods: Participants had knee OA in at least one knee. Trained examiners assessed participants for varus thrust presence during ambulation. Frontal plane knee motion during ambulation was captured using external passive reflective markers and an 8-camera motion analysis system. To examine the crosssectional relationship between varus thrust and frontal plane knee motion, we used multivariable regression models

with the quantitative motion measures as dependent variables and varus thrust (present/absent) as predictor; models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), gait speed, and knee static alignment.

Results: 236 persons [mean BMI: 28.5 C59 nmr kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD) 5.5), mean age: 64.9 years (SD 10.4), 75.8% women] contributing 440 knees comprised the study sample. 82 knees (18.6%) had definite varus thrust. Knees with varus thrust had greater peak varus angle and greater peak varus angular velocity during stance than knees without varus thrust (mean differences 0.90 degrees and 6.65 degrees/s, respectively). These patterns

remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment.

Conclusion: Visualized varus thrust during walking was associated with a greater peak knee varus angular velocity and a greater peak knee varus angle during stance phase of gait. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis ZD1839 Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1

(IGF-1), which has effects similar to insulin, reduces blood glucose level, improves insulin sensitivity and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes (GDM).

Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the concentration of IGF-1 in pregnant women with GDM and 3 months after delivery and find relationships between IGF-1 and clinical and biochemical parameters.

Materials and methods: 67 women between 24th – 28th week of pregnancy were enrolled in the study (46 with GDM and 21 as a control group). All women underwent clinical and biochemical examinations. Concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, CRP, fibrinogen were measured during pregnancy, additionally IGF-1 concentration was determined 3 months after delivery.

Results: IGF-1, glucose, insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, lipids concentrations and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the control group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in IGF-1 concentration was observed in both groups after delivery. In the GDM group significant correlations between IGF-1 and BMI (r=0.370, p<0.05), insulin (r=0.469, p<0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.439, p<0.01) were observed.

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