We conducted an adherence assay with 51 biofilm-negative mutants

We conducted an adherence assay with 51 biofilm-negative mutants and two human epithelial cell lines, T84 and HEp2. Our results show that unlike wild-type cells, biofilm-negative mutants adhere poorly to epithelial cells. Some adhesin-negative mutants were fully competent in biofilm formation, however. Thus, biofilm-forming activity in E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 is required for Afatinib research buy adherence to T84 and HEp2 cells, but it is not sufficient. Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), is one of

the more important gastrointestinal food-borne pathogens. It causes >73 000 illnesses and 61 deaths per year in the United States (Rangel et al., 2005). This pathogen is associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans (Pai et al., 1988; Mead & Griffin, 1998). Human disease is initiated by the adherence of the bacterium to the host intestinal tissue, where attaching and effacing lesions are induced, triggering diarrhea. The production of Shiga-like toxins and other putative virulence factors could trigger the onset of bloody diarrhea and colitis (hemorrhagic colitis). Shiga-like

toxins then cross the epithelial barrier to the blood stream via damaged epithelium or transcellular pathways to cause systemic sequelae such as Metformin in vivo hemolytic uremic syndrome (Paton & Paton, 1998). Thus, the ability of EHEC to attach to the intestinal epithelium is the initiating

event that determines the pathogenic potential. Adherence assays with cultured intestinal cell lines are often used to determine differences in pathogenicity among EHEC strains in vitro (Torres et al., 2005; Mellor et al., 2009). Because E. coli O157:H7 adheres to the intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, the use of epithelial cell lines such as HEp2 and T84 yields a better understanding of the differences in adherence properties in vivo. In addition to adhering to host tissues, E. coli O157:H7 is capable of interacting very with other surfaces outside their hosts such as plastics and glass through biofilms (Dewanti & Wong, 1995). Biofilms are poorly defined, complex polysaccharide polymers on bacterial surfaces thought to have several functions, all of which impart a selective advantage to the organism. The control of biofilm formation in relation to other physiological processes is poorly understood, but profound changes in gene expression accompany the shift from planktonic to biofilm growth (Oosthuizen et al., 2002; Beloin et al., 2004). The mechanism(s) of regulation of a significant proportion of the total genome has not been defined, but quorum sensing seems to play an important role (Davies et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2007). How bacteria integrate other surface constituents within the biofilm architecture is not clear.

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