Typical reactions are freezing, exploration, and increases in hea

Typical reactions are freezing, exploration, and increases in heart rate and blood pressure (BP).[10, 11] Humans show reactions such as the “first-night effect,” a well-known phenomenon in sleep research.[12-14] Humans sleeping in the surrounding of a sleep laboratory for the first time exhibit various disruptions of sleep which tend to vanish in the consecutive nights. Other more enduring novelty responses in humans include wearing an ambulatory BP monitoring

device, coming to the clinic for BP assessment, or coming to the laboratory for an orthostatic strain test. These lead, among others, to a higher level of BP during the first compared to the second day of assessment.[15-17] The described increases in cardiovascular activity and possibly also of sleep disturbance are most likely due to an increased beta-adrenergic arousal of the autonomic nervous system associated with active coping.[18, 19] In addition PD0325901 manufacturer to reacting to novelty, humans also anticipate these events, thereby showing specific psychophysiological and behavioral changes preparing them for the future situation.[20] These reactions

have been studied extensively in the short-term anticipation of pain, but are also found in the long-term anticipation of stressful events such as job loss.[21-23] Epacadostat supplier However, despite the frequency of travel, the novelty response to our knowledge so far has not been studied in relation to a temporary change of residence (CoR) as occurs during travel, except for some older anecdotal reports on “environment shock” during travel[24] DOK2 and studies generally related to travel stress.[25-27] Based on the previously mentioned facts, we assume that individuals will respond to a CoR by an increase of (1) systolic and (2) diastolic BP reflecting beta-adrenergic arousal, (3) a decrease in the quality sleep reflecting anxiety related to unfamiliarity, and (4) a decrease of mood also reflecting the tension related to a novel residence. We assume that these effects will be present both prior to and after the change of residence, due to

anticipation of, and confrontation with the event, respectively. We do not expect these changes to be present any more than 5 days after the CoR because of habituation. Individuals who were scheduled for a 3-week stay at the health resort Bad Tatzmannsdorf to receive spa treatment were contacted by mail at least 5 weeks prior to their stay and asked whether they were interested in participating in a study on BP changes prior to, during, and after spa therapy. The study focus on change of residency was not explicitly stated. The sole inclusion criterion was living in the vicinity of Vienna to enable participants to receive and be trained in the use of the BP monitor at our department and to limit travel duration. The distance between Vienna and Bad Tatzmannsdorf is 120 km.

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