“To investigate the clinical course and outcome of periton

“To investigate the clinical course and outcome of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis secondary to Gordonia species. We reviewed all Gordonia peritonitis episodes occurring in a single dialysis unit from 1994 to 2013. During the study period, four episodes of Gordonia peritonitis

were recorded. All were male patients. One patient responded to vancomycin therapy. One patient had refractory peritonitis despite vancomycin, but responded to imipenem and amikacin combination therapy. One patient had relapsing peritonitis and required catheter removal. The fourth patient had an elective Tenckhoff catheter exchange. No patient died of peritonitis. Causative organism was not fully identified until 7 to 18 days of peritonitis. Gordonia species is increasingly recognized to cause serious infections. In patients selleck compound undergoing peritoneal dialysis, Gordonia peritonitis should be considered in case of refractory Gram-positive bacilli peritonitis, especially when the exact organism could not be identified one week after the onset of peritonitis. A close liaison with a microbiologist is needed for a timely diagnosis. “
“Chronic cyclosporine (CsA) treatment induces autophagic cell death characterized by excessive autophagosome formation and decreased autophagic clearance. In this study, we

evaluated the influence of ginseng treatment on autophagy in chronic CsA nephropathy. Mice were treated with CsA (30 mg/kg) with or without oxyclozanide Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract (0.2, 0.4 g/kg) CX-4945 cell line for 4 weeks. The effect of KRG on CsA-induced autophagosome formation was measured using phospholipid-conjugated form of LC3-II, beclin-1, and autophagic vacuoles were visualized with electron microscopy. Autophagic clearance was evaluated by accumulation of p62/sequestosome 1 (p62) and ubiquitin, then double immunolabeling for p62 and either LC3-II or ubiquitin. To demonstrate the association between the effects of KRG treatment on autophagy and apoptosis, double immunolabelling for LC3-II and active caspase-3 was performed. Multiple autophagy

pathways were also examined. KRG co-treatment significantly decreased the expression of LC3-II, beclin-1, and the number of autophagic vacuoles compared with the CsA group, and these changes were accompanied by improvements in renal dysfunction and fibrosis. CsA-induced accumulation of p62 and ubiquitin was also decreased by KRG treatment, and these proteins were colocalized with LC3-II and with each other. KRG treatment simultaneously reduced the expression of both active caspase-3 and LC3-II in the injured area. KRG treatment during chronic CsA nephropathy induced the expression of AKT/mTOR, which is a pathway that inhibits autophagy, and reduced AMPK expression. Ginseng treatment attenuated CsA-induced excessive autophagosome formation and autophagic aggregates. These findings suggest that ginseng has a renoprotective effect against CsA-induced autophagic cell death.

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