To better define the possible mechanism of action of compounds, w

To better define the possible mechanism of action of compounds, we also examined their dose-dependent effect on topoisomerases, as HU-331 has been proposed to be a catalytic inhibitor

Epigenetics Compound Library price of topoisomerase II. We tested their ability to directly inhibit topoisomerases in cleavage assays demonstrating that our derivatives are not able to poison the nuclear enzymes. To conclude, the analyses of the present study have revealed that the synthesized quinine V has the potential to induce apoptosis in M14 cancer cell line in vitro and it is very important to note that this compound additionally has the ability to inhibit the expression of the antiapoptotic protein XIAP, a regulatory protein that suppresses apoptosis cell death by binding the caspase proteins [30, 31]. On the light of interesting pharmacological results, a more extensive medicinal chemistry program has been engaged to consolidate the series and identify lead selleck chemicals llc candidates for the design of more potent antitumor agents based on 2-hydroxyquinone skeleton which in turn should afford a better

understanding of biological mechanisms regulating apoptosis. Acknowledgement We are grateful to Dermofarma Italia, Benevento, for financial support. The Topoisomerase test was supported by grant of Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sulCancro, Milan, Italy, [IG 10184]. References 1. Yu CC, Wu PJ, Hsu JL, Ho YF, Hsu LC, Chang YJ, Chang HS, Chen IS, Guh JH: Ardisianone, a natural Cobimetinib benzoquinone, efficiently induces apoptosis in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers through mitochondrial

damage stress and survivin downregulation. Prostate 2013,73(2):133–145. doi:10.1002/pros.22548. Epub 2012 Jun 5.2012PubMedCrossRef 2. Gunatilaka AA, Berger JM, Evans R, Miller JS, Wisse JH, Neddermann KM, Bursuker I, Kingston DG: Isolation, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of bioactive benzoquinones from Miconia lepidota from the Suriname rainforest. Nat. Prod. 2001, 64:2–5.CrossRef 3. Mahmood U, Kaul VK, Jirovetz L: Alkylated benzoquinones from Iris kumaonensis. Phytochemistry 2002, 61:923–926.PubMedCrossRef 4. Muhammad I, Takamatsu S, Walker LA, Mossa JS, Fong HH, El-Feraly FS: Cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of alkylated benzoquinones from Maesa lanceolata. Phytother Res 2003, 17:887–891.PubMedCrossRef 5. Chitra M, Sukumar E, Suja V, Devi CS: Antitumor, anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of embelin, a plant product. Chemotherapy 1994, 40:109–113.PubMedCrossRef 6. Hu R, Zhu K, Li Y, Yao K, Zhang R, Wang H: Embelin induces apoptosis through down-regulation of XIAP in human leukemia cells. Med Oncol 2011,28(8):1584.PubMedCrossRef 7.

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