Through such processes, the genetic underpinnings of intelligence, specifically, mutation load, may also increase the risk of developing AD. We discuss how specific neurobiologic features of relatively lower premorbid intelligence, including reduced metabolic efficiency, may facilitate the development of AD neuropathology. The cognitive reserve hypothesis, the most widely accepted account of the intelligence-AD association, is reviewed in the context of this larger
“The stability of the remnant polarization in the ferroelectric barrier layer is a prerequisite to applications involving ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) or capacitors. One see more of the most important issues in the pursuit of further developments in this area is to overcome the limitations due to the critical thickness, below which the ferroelectric polarization disappears. In this paper we report first-principle density-functional BVD-523 clinical trial calculations of the charge distribution and polarization in an asymmetric FTJ (A-FTJ), i.e., one with dissimilar electrodes. We found that a significant and stable polarization can be retained down to thicknesses as small as 0.8 nm (two unit-cells) in a BaTiO3
thin film between Pt and SrRuO3 electrodes, quite unlike the case of symmetric FTJs. We trace this surprising result to the large electric field produced by the charge transfer between the electrodes caused by their different electronic environments, which acts against the depolarization field and enhances the ferroelectricity, leading
to the reduction, or even the complete elimination of the depolarization field, leading to the vanishing of the critical thickness. We speculate that this is a general result for A-FTJs, which could be of importance to applications of ferroelectric thin films and tunneling junctions or capacitors where the presence of the critical thickness is a limiting factor. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3532000]“
“The build-up LGX818 MAPK inhibitor of species locally within a region by allopatric speciation depends on geographically separated (allopatric) sister populations becoming reproductively incompatible followed by secondary sympatry. Among birds, this has happened frequently in remote archipelagos, spectacular cases including the Darwin’s finches (Geospizinae) and Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae), but similar examples are lacking in archipelagos nearer to continental landmasses. Of the required steps in the speciation cycle, achievement of secondary sympatry appears to be limiting in near archipelagos and, by extension, in continental regions. Here, I suggest that secondary sympatry might be prevented by apparent competition mediated through pathogens that are locally coevolved with one population of host and are pathogenic in sister populations.