This procedure leads to dilution of type I persisters whilst stoc

This procedure leads to dilution of type I persisters whilst stochastically build type II persister cell levels should remain constant. As depicted in Figure 2B the percentage of antibiotic tolerant persisters decreased sequentially after 100-fold MIC gentamicin challenge when the bacterial culture was kept in the early growth phase for three cycles. This data indicate that

gentamicin Selleckchem Eltanexor tolerant persisters are not or only rarely produced in the early exponential growth phase and that most of the tolerant bacteria represented type I persisters. These were probably ‘left overs’ from the overnight culture and became diluted within repeated cycles of exponential growth. S. suis persister cells also tolerate combinations of different antibiotics Antibiotics like penicillin are frequently used to treat S. suis infections, sometimes in combination with other antibiotics like aminoglycosides. However, relapses of S. suis infections in pigs and humans have been reported [36]. Furthermore, penicillin and gentamicin

are widely used in standard antibiotic protection assays to quantify intracellular bacteria in in vitro cell culture experiments. Therefore, we investigated S. suis tolerance against a combination of penicillin (200-fold MIC) and gentamicin (4-fold MIC) that correspond to the concentrations applied in these antibiotic protection experiments. After simultaneous treatment find more of exponential grown S. suis with penicillin and gentamicin we observed a biphasic killing curve characterized by a rapid decrease of CFU numbers within the first hour and a subsequent plateau of surviving bacteria persisting for more than 8 hours (Figure 3A). The killing kinetics of stationary grown bacteria treated similarly resembled treatment with gentamicin alone, as depicted in Figure 1B. Similar to what we observed after treatment with a Bioactive Compound Library cell assay single antibiotic, the tolerance to a combination of penicillin

and gentamicin was not inherited, as revealed from heritability tests (Figure 3B). Glutamate dehydrogenase These data suggest that S. suis persister cells are capable of tolerating not only single antibiotics, but also a combination of penicillin and aminoglycosides. Figure 3 Time-dependent killing after combined antibiotic treatment. (A) Exponential (solid line) and stationary (dotted line) grown S. suis strain 10 was exposed to a combined antibiotic treatment of 200-fold MIC of penicillin and 4-fold MIC of gentamicin over time. (B) This penicillin/gentamicin combination was also used in a heritability test with exponential (solid line) and stationary (dotted line) grown S. suis in three consecutive cycles. The values are means of two biological replicates plated in triplicate. Error bars indicate the standard deviation. Persister cell formation in S.

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