This is also valid for Frankia that fix nitrogen both in free-living and in symbiotic conditions. Frankia symbiosis results from interaction between the Frankia bacteria and dicotyledonous plants, that is, actinorhiza. These plants, which are important in forestry and agroforestry, form, together with the
legumes (Fabales), a single Talazoparib order nitrogen-fixing clade. It has been shown that a receptor-like kinase gene, SymRK, is necessary for nodulation in actinorhizal plants as well as in legumes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Recently, the involvement of isoflavonoids as signal molecules during nodulation of an actinorhizal plant was shown. The genome sizes of three Frankia species, Frankia EANpec, ACN14a and CcI3, are different, revealing a relationship between genome size and geographical distribution. Recent genomic sequencing data of Frankia represent genomes from cluster I to IV, indicating that the genome of DgI is one of the smallest genomes
in Frankia. In addition, nonsymbiotic Frankiales such as Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Blastococcus saxoobsidens, Geodermatophilus obscurus and Modestobacter marinus have a variety of genome sizes ranging from 2.4 to 5.57 Mb. “
“Some Candida species are common commensals, which can become Osimertinib opportunistic pathogens in susceptible hosts. In severely ill patients, Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, can cause life-threatening systemic infections. These infections are difficult to diagnose, as symptoms are similar to those of systemic bacterial infections. These difficulties can lead to delays in initiation in antifungal therapy, which contributes to the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) high mortality rates (>40%) associated with these infections. In order to investigate systemic Candida infection, mouse models have been developed that mimic human disease, the most common being the intravenous infection model and the gastrointestinal colonization
and dissemination model. This review discusses the two models and the contributions that they have made to our understanding of fungal virulence, host response to infection and the development of novel antifungal therapies and diagnostics. A select number of Candida species are usually found as harmless commensals in the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity and genital area of healthy individuals. Candida spp. can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals, with the highest fungal counts found in the duodenum (Kusne et al., 1994). The most common species isolated is Candida albicans, with Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei also found (Kusne et al., 1994; Scanlan & Marchesi, 2008).