This corroborates well with the cross-sectional line profiles HSP990 corresponding to faceted structures shown in Figures 5d,e,f and 6d,e,f which reveal

clear enhancements in lateral dimension and height of the faceted structures with increasing ion fluence. The formation of faceted structures and their coarsening behaviour discussed previously are beyond the scope of linear stability analysis of B-H theory because of the presence of ion beam shadowing and possible slope-dependent non-linear effect. In the linear regime, based on Sigmund’s theory of find more sputtering [35], B-H theory takes into account a competition between curvature-dependent sputtering and surface diffusion. Sputtering is treated as a surface roughening mechanism in this theory, and hence, it is always useful to JQ-EZ-05 study the temporal evolution of surface roughness under ion beam erosion to address pattern formation. Figure 7 presents the roughness spectrum (i.e. variation in surface roughness with ripple wavelength/facet

base width) for both the angles under consideration. In both cases, we observe an increase in roughness with increasing feature (ripple/facet) dimension. Figure 7 Variation in rms surface roughness ( w ) with lateral feature dimension corresponding to both angles of incidence. It may be noted that in our case, the sputtering yield would not remain the same due to the evolution of structures having high aspect ratio. According to Carter, the shadowing transition is independent of Y(θ) and is purely geometric in nature albeit the role of sputtering may not be ruled out. The fractional change in sputtering yield with respect

to the flat surface (to begin with) is described in ‘Theoretical approach’. Under this framework, we examine the role of sputtering using Equation 1 which is solved by assuming the dependence: Y(θ) = Y(0) secθ[35]. Although this form is known oxyclozanide to be reasonable for not too large values of θ, in our case, this approximation simplifies the sputtering yield calculation and explains our results qualitatively. The variation in fractional change in sputtering yield, F, with ripple wavelength/facet base width is shown in Figure 8 for both the angles under consideration. It is observed from Figure 8 that F follows nearly the similar trend as observed in the case of surface roughness (although a slight mismatch is observed in the case of 70°). Therefore, results shown in Figures 7 and 8 can be considered to be well correlated and confirm our claim that evolution of faceted structures at higher angles of incidence may also be driven by significant contribution from the sputter erosion-induced roughening phenomenon. Figure 8 Variation in fractional change in sputtering yield ( F ). With lateral feature dimension corresponding to both angles of incidence.