These cultures were then tested against LCLs and EBV-positive BL

These cultures were then tested against LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells using either cytotoxicity or IFN-γ release. In the case of EBNA1-specific T-cell responses, failure to lyse EBNA1-expressing target cells has frequently been observed,20,35 although Ixazomib chemical structure low levels of lysis have been reported in some studies.11,12 In contrast, specific recognition of EBNA1-derived epitopes has in many cases been revealed by the induction of IFN-γ release, which is considered

a more sensitive method for detecting target cell recognition. By this approach, we confirmed that the presence of HPV-specific T-cell responses is in the same range as that seen for the immunodominant HLA-B35-restricted YPL epitope derived from EBNA3.10,11 This finding, together with the identification of other EBNA1-derived

epitopes restricted by several class I alleles,9–13 further highlights the importance of EBNA1 as a target of EBV-positive malignancies, and makes evaluation of the selleck screening library recognition of EBV-infected cells and EBV-associated malignancies by EBNA1-specific CTLs crucial. Hence, we set out to demonstrate that LCLs are recognized and killed by HPV-specific CTL cultures, indicating that the GAr domain affords the protein antigen only partial protection from CD8+ T-cell recognition. Therefore, in line with previous observations, our results support the idea that EBNA1-specific T-cell responses are primed in vivo by a direct interaction between the CD8 T-cell repertoire and naturally infected B cells in which endogenously expressed EBNA1 is targeted intracellularly by the proteasome, despite the presence of the GAr domain.10–12 In contrast to what was observed eltoprazine in LCLs, we show that BL cells are not recognized by HPV-specific CTLs, thereby suggesting that the GAr domain affords the EBNA1 antigen protection from CTL-mediated lysis in this type of cell. As it has previously been demonstrated that the stability of EBNA1, although varying in different cell lines, does not correspond to the level of generation of EBNA1-derived CTL epitopes,11 lack of presentation

of the HPV epitope in BL cells should not be the result of a GAr stabilization effect of EBNA1. Instead, it should be ascribable to the particular antigen-processing machinery present in BL cells, which differs from that found in LCLs. Furthermore, deletion of the GAr domain has also been demonstrated to provoke no major effect on EBNA1 protection from degradation, suggesting that the GAr domain has other, as yet unidentified, effects.36 One of the major differences between BL cells and LCL is the proteasome.21,27,28 Indeed, using the same cells assayed for cytotoxicity, BL cells were found to present proteasomes with a different subunit composition, correlating with much lower chymotryptic and tryptic-like activities with respect to LCLs. This may result in their poor capacity to generate the HPV epitope because of presence of the GAr domain, whose deletion restores the capacity of BL cells to present the HPV epitope.

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