(The World Conservation Congress, 2012, issued a formal resolutio

(The World Conservation Congress, 2012, issued a formal resolution Res 5.022, specifically supporting mammal conservation initiatives

in these regions, http://​www.​iucn.​org/​about/​work/​programmes/​global_​policy/​gpu_​resources/​gpu_​res_​recs/​)   (2) Hunting areas are extensive, so the fate of lions depends on how well user-communities manage them. The same principle applies to lions within protected areas, with responsibility falling on protected area managers to secure these populations. Finally, lions also occur well beyond protected areas, and how well one manages lion-human conflict will determine persistence there. Yet, conflict outside protected areas can affect lion persistence within (Woodroffe and Ginsberg 1998). Good protection within a protected area is not sufficient if there CA4P supplier is unrelenting killing of lions outside it.   (3) Central Africa may have sizable lion and prey populations, but they are poorly known, even by African standards.  

(4) That said, independently verified census data, using statistically repeatable techniques are the rare exception, not the rule, across even relatively well-studied East and Southern Africa. The situation is particularly acute for Tanzania, which holds a large fraction of the world’s lions.   (5) Repeated PI3K inhibitor mapping of areas which have at least the potential for lions because of their low human impacts may CHIR 99021 provide the only quantifiable measures of how savannah Africa is shrinking from the lion’s viewpoint. This is necessary, but definitely not sufficient. The lack of repeated, statistically credible lion counts, for well-defined areas is a striking omission, one that must be rectified if we are to assess not only the trends in lion numbers, but our success in reversing

their declines.   Acknowledgments This project was supported by National Geographic Society’s Big Cats Initiative. We would like to thank those Interns who 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase spent time digitizing parts of Africa: Corey Anco, Gina Angiolillo, Sam Baraso, Mike Barrett, Emily Buenger, Rachael Carnes, Megan Cattau, Jennifer Chin, Jessica Daniel, Jill Derwin, Kristana Erikson, Derek Fedak, Kristen Fedak, Colin Hutton, Emily Myron, Lisanne Petracca, Rachel Roberts, Stephanie Roe, Cooper Rosin, Victoria Shelus and Christopher Smith. We also acknowledge the support of Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. Electronic supplementary material Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

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