The semitendinosus tendon is z-lengthened and the lateral aspect

The semitendinosus tendon is z-lengthened and the lateral aspect of the distal end of the semimembranosus is freed of fat and connective tissue to expose the whole of its aponeurosis, which is then incised in a V shape. As the knee is extended, the ends of the aponeurosis pull apart and the muscle

fibres also glide apart. Aponeurosis on the lateral aspect of the biceps femoris is exposed and similarly incised as the knee is extended. In severe contractures, the gracilis tendon is also cut. Once the posterior capsule of the knee has been released, the popliteus tendon and posterior cruciate ligament are also released, after protecting the neurovascular bundle in the region and selleck chemicals llc the peroneal nerve in particular. Postoperatively, a long leg plaster with ample soft padding over the PLK inhibitor posterior aspects of the knee is placed on the leg to

bring the knee gradually into complete extension. Active, gentle physiotherapy is initiated 48 h after the drain has been removed. The posterior splint is removed for intervals after the eighth postoperative day. Intensive physiotherapy is started in the hospital once the wound has healed and continued after the patient’s discharge. Physiotherapy, including stretching exercises, is advised three times a week during the first two months, and close observation for the first six months, postoperatively. Soft tissue procedures (hamstring release) are often insufficient to gain full correction. Mechanical distraction using external fixators are also an efficient way to correct deformity with such advantages as versatility and low risk of neurovascular complication. It has potential disadvantages including pin tract site bleeding and infection, rebound phenomena after frame removal, decreased ROM, subluxation and it is time consuming. Supracondylar extension osteotomy find more of the femur is a procedure that can be used to correct severe deformity [15].

This method may have several disadvantages. It creates a secondary deformity (shortening and angulation) and may lead to abnormal joint-loading forces in ambulatory patients. It also makes the future total knee arthroplasty difficult by distorting the anatomy of the distal end of the femur. In spite of these flaws, acute correction of the deformity, improvement in the patient’s walking in both unilateral and bilateral cases and increase in total arc of motion of the joint in some patients are important advantages of this procedure. Correction of the deformity decreases the rate of haemorrhage in the same joint and the other joints. Among different techniques reported for the femoral extension osteotomy, trapezoidal extension osteotomy has several advantages compared with other osteotomy techniques or soft tissue release operations.

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