The rationale of this is the following: the buttocks should be re

The rationale of this is the following: the buttocks should be regarded as a distinct anatomical/junctional zone in trauma surgery because patterns of penetrating injury and clinical characteristics as well as implications of buttock trauma disclosed in this paper correspond with general hallmarks of junctional trauma [54]. In terms of injury

severity score, only Ferraro [16] and Lesperance [10] used the ISS scale. It is important to emphasise coding technique for penetrating buttock injury according to newest AIS 2005©Update 2008 [55]. It indicates that superficial (minor) penetrating injury to the buttock should be regarded as grade 1 (code 816011.1). When there is tissue loss >25 cm2, it should be regarded as grade 2 injury (code 816012.2), and when it is associated with blood loss >20% by volume, it has to be regarded as grade 3 injury (816013.3). Such injuries should be assigned to the external body region when Dibutyryl-cAMP nmr calculating the ISS. However, if underlying anatomical structures are involved, documented diagnoses should be coded only, and they should be assigned to either the lower extremity body region or abdomen. Penetrating injuries involving a bone is coded as open fracture to the specific bone. There are several limitations of this review.

Publication bias, retrospective approach, clustered data, complexity of some injuries, and constrained nature of this study are the factors which undoubtedly cause our bias views. Prospective networked Acadesine mw studies would be a better approach to the problem. The current review may help to design such studies. In conclusion, penetrating buttock trauma should be regarded as a life-threatening injury with impact beyond the pelvis until proven otherwise. References 1. Trunkey D: Torso trauma. Curr Probl Surg 1987, 24:4.CrossRef 2. DiGiacomo JC, Schwab CW, Rotondo MF, Angood PA, McGonigal MD, Kauder DR, Phillips GR: Gluteal gunshot wounds: who warrants exploration? J Trauma 1994, 37:622–628.PubMedCrossRef 3. Mercer DW, Buckman RF Jr, Sood R, Kerr TM, Gelman J: Anatomic considerations in penetrating gluteal wounds. Arch Surg 1992, 127:407–410.PubMed

4. Ivatury RR, Rao Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase PM, Nallathambi M, Gaudino J, Stahl WM: Penetrating gluteal injuries. J Trauma 1982, 22:706–709.PubMedCrossRef 5. Vo NM, Russell JC, Becker DR: Gunshot wounds to the buttocks. Am Surg 1983, 49:579–581.PubMed 6. Feigenberg Z, Ben-Baruch D, Barak R, Zer M: Penetrating stab wound of the gluteus-a potentially life-threatening injury: case reports. J Trauma 1992, 33:776–778.PubMedCrossRef 7. Salim A, Velmahos GC: When to operate on abdominal gunshot wounds. Scand J Surg 2002, 91:62–66.PubMed 8. Aydin A, Lee CC, Schultz E, Ackerman J: Traumatic inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm: case report and review of literature. Am J Emerg Med 2007, 25:488.e1–3.CrossRef 9. Butt MU, Zacharias N, Velmahos GC: Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2009, 17:19.PubMedCrossRef 10.

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