The position of the maximally neutral region and the diversity of

The position of the maximally neutral region and the diversity of the population once that region has been attained are analytically obtained through the principal eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of A ij . The relaxation time to that state is obtained from non-principal eigenvalues of A ij . Finally, if each sequence has a minimum free energy associated, temperature increases destabilize subsets of sequences (not necessarily connected

in the neutral network) and push the population towards regions of low energy. Reaching a compromise between attaining high molecular neutrality and being stable against temperature changes could have been a crucial step in the survivability of early populations Selleckchem PND-1186 of replicating RNA molecules. Buldú, J. M., Aguirre, J., and Manrubia, S. C. Seeking robustness: high neutrality and stable structures in populations of RNA sequences. In preparation. Schuster, P. (2006). Prediction of RNA secondary structures: from theory to models and real molecules. Rep. Prog. Phys. 69:1419–1477. van Nimwegen, E., Crutchfield, J. P., and Huynen, M. (1999). Neutral evolution of mutational robustness. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 9716–9720. E-mail: [email protected]​es Water: From the Nonenzymatic Phosphorylation of MK-8931 cost Nucleosides to the Nonenzymatic Ligation of Oligonucleotides Giovanna Costanzo1, Fabiana Ciciriello2, Samanta Pino2, Diego Pesce2,

Michele Graciotti2,Ernesto Di Mauro2 1IBPM, CNR, Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Italy In trying to reconstruct the origin of informational polymers we have followed the path of simplicity. All the relevant steps can occur abiotically and non-fastidiously. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated in water from simple phosphate donors. 2′AMP, 3′AMP, 5′AMP, 2′,3′-cAMP and 3′,5′-cAMP are formed. 2′,3′-cAMP and 3′,5′-cAMP can form oligomers in water, at moderate temperature and without the help of catalysts or of additional activation. 2′AMP, 3′AMP and 5′AMP do not. Adenine-based oligomers undergo

spontaneous terminal ligation in water, CYTH4 affording dimers and tetramers. The only limiting constraint is pH. The possibility that this reaction is the starting mechanism from which replication of genetic polymers evolved will be discussed. E-mail: ernesto.​[email protected]​it RNA Synthesis by Mineral BI 2536 mw catalysis Michael F. Aldersley1, Prakash Joshi1, John Delano2, James P. Ferris1 1Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180 USA; 2University at Albany, Albany, NY, 12222 USA The RNA World hypothesis proposes that RNA was the most important biopolymer in the primitive life on the Earth. It served as a catalyst as well as a repository of genetic information. We discovered that 40–50 mers of RNAs are formed by the montmorillonite clay catalysis of the reaction of activated monomers.

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