The pellet samples after normalization to 12 5 O D 600/ml, were b

The pellet samples after normalization to 12.5 O.D.600/ml, were boiled for 10 min in 1 x SDS-loading dye as above. After the run, proteins were either Coomassie stained or transferred

onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane (Immobilon P, Millipore) using a semi-dry blot. BvgS, a non-secreted protein control was detected using polyclonal mouse antiserum at a dilution of 1:1000 [21]. Pertactin (PRN), which is secreted by a non-T3SS dependent pathway, was identified using a monoclonal mouse antibody at a dilution of 1:1000 [22]. Bsp22, a T3SS substrate control, was detected using polyclonal mouse serum at a dilution of 1:10,000 [23]. Immunodetection was carried out by chemifluorescence using horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse IgG and the ECL plus® detection substrate (GE Healthcare). Chemifluorescent signals were visualized using a Typhoon scanner (GE Healthcare). Genomic DNA extraction, PCR-based detection and genome sequencing DNA was extracted from overnight cultures of various isolates using the PureLink genomic DNA kit as per manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen Corporation, USA). PCR was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions (0.5 U of iproof polymerase, 200 μM each of the four dNTPs and 1 μM each Nutlin 3 primer) and supplemented with 3% dimethyl sulphoxide

(DMSO). Primers B77_QseC1F (5′- ATGACTTTGCAGCGCAGGTT −3′) and B77_QseC1R (5′- AGAAACGCGATCAGCACGGG −3′) or primers B77_QseC2F (5′- GGAGATCTTGCCGTCGCCAT-3′) and B77_QseC2R (5′-ACTTCCCATTGCGCGCGTAG-3′) were used to amplify qseC sequences, and primers B77_QseB1F (5′- GAGAATTCTTATTGTCGAAG-3′) and B77_QseB1R

(5′- GATTCCCAGTCATACAGCTT −3′) were used to amplify qseB. Cycling parameters were: one cycle of 98°C for 1 min; 25 cycles of 98°C for 10 s, 55°C for 20 s and 72°C for 30 s; and a final incubation at 72°C for 5 min. The PCR products were fractionated on 1% agarose gel using 1X TBE buffer containing 5 μg/ml ethidium bromide. PCR products of the extracted DNA were then purified Suplatast tosilate for sequencing using Qiagen’s QIAquick purification kit (Qiagen, Valencia, USA). Bordetella genomes were sequenced by the Sequencing Group at the Sanger Center and can be obtained from ftp://​ftp.​sanger.​ac.​uk/​pub/​pathogens/​bp. Construction of bscN and bteA in-frame deletion mutants To construct in-frame deletions of codons 171–261 in the bscN locus, allelic exchange was performed using pEGBR1005 suicide plasmid derivatives as previously described by Yuk et al. [15]. For construction of bteA in-frame deletions (codons 4–653), suicide plasmid pRE112-bteA was used as previously described by Panina et al. [11]. All mutants were verified by sequencing target open reading frames. Cell lines Cell lines used in this study were obtained from the American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC).

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