The

final paper in this first section by Wagner et al re

The

final paper in this first section by Wagner et al. reports MAC curves for mitigation options in Annex 1 countries to 2030 using the Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model and World Energy Outlook (2007–2009) reference scenarios as baselines. They are concerned with identifying no-regret mitigation options and in identifying the value of local co-benefits through reduced air pollutants. They find that 25 % abatement of GHG in UNFCCC Annex I countries in 2020 (relative to 1990) is achievable at costs below €50/tCO2 at an aggregate cost of less the 0.1 % of GDP. GHG mitigation potentials are greatest in the power and building sectors. These modeling studies are extremely useful in showing

that transformation selleck screening library of the global energy sector is fundamental to achieving deep emissions reductions; in demonstrating that the technological options to achieve reductions exist; and in providing a sense of the scale of FGFR inhibitor the costs involved. One of the shortcomings of these models is their assumption that costs and prices alone will determine the structure of energy generation, future energy use, and innovation and diffusion of new technologies, including renewable energy technologies. We know that price alone does not fully explain the uptake of new technologies. Instead, a series of institutional, behavioral and cultural factors also play an important role in technology development and diffusion. There are two main reasons for this. The 5-Fluoracil first is that energy markets are not open and free, but highly influenced by national and international policies,

including climate policies. The second is that governments play an important role in creating the enabling conditions for new technologies to emerge (through funding of science) and to diffuse (through creating markets for new technologies). Therefore this Special Issue includes a second set of papers that investigate institutional factors that play a role in the diffusion of new energy technologies. Suwa and Jupesta (2012) offer a study on Japan’s support for renewable energy deployment. Comparative studies between renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and feed-in tariff (FIT) schemes in the country identified barriers to policy transfer and innovation; technology ‘lock in’ and reluctance to experiment are found to be GF120918 manufacturer obstacles faced by policy makers. Innovative policy is deemed necessary to stimulate transition, but faces obstacles from established industrial and political interests. Jolly et al. report how innovative business models have evolved for the five most visible and established initiatives in the area of off-grid PV solar energy in India.

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