The coronary arterioles dilated dose-dependently to the endothelium-dependent NO-mediated vasodilator serotonin. This vasodilation was inhibited in the same manner by NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and by lumenal OxLDL (0.5 mg protein/mL). The inhibitory effect of OxLDL was reversed after treating the vessels with either l-arginine (3 mM) or arginase inhibitor selleck screening library difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; 0.4 mM). Consistent with vasomotor alterations, OxLDL inhibited serotonin-induced NO release from coronary arterioles and this inhibition
was reversed by DFMO. Vascular arginase activity was significantly elevated by OxLDL. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that OxLDL increased arginase I expression in the vascular wall without altering
eNOS expression. Taken together, these results suggest that OxLDL up-regulates arginase I, which contributes to endothelial dysfunction by reducing l-arginine availability to eNOS for NO production and thus vasodilation. “
“Department of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health, University of Sheffield, Medical School, Sheffield, UK Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the medium and large arteries driven in large part by the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and other debris at sites rendered susceptible because of the geometry of the arterial tree. As lesions develop, they PLX4032 acquire a pathologic microcirculation that perpetuates lesion progression, both by providing a means for further monocyte and T-lymphocyte recruitment into the arterial wall and by the physical and chemical stresses caused by micro-hemorrhage. This review summarizes work performed in our department investigating the roles
of signaling pathways, alone and in combination, that lead to specific programs of gene expression in the atherosclerotic environment. Focusing particularly on cytoprotective responses that might be enhanced therapeutically, the work has encompassed the anti-inflammatory effects of arterial laminar shear stress, mechanisms Baf-A1 in vitro of induction of membrane inhibitors that prevent complement-mediated injury, homeostatic macrophage responses to hemorrhage, and the transcriptional mechanisms that control the stability, survival, and quiescence of endothelial monolayers. Lastly, while the field has been dominated by investigation into the mechanisms of DNA transcription, we consider the importance of parallel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for fine-tuning functional gene expression repertoires. “
“Isolation of rodent endothelial cells from lymphatic capillaries with yields that allow extensive functional studies remains challenging due to low cell numbers, variable purity, and limited growth potential.