The assessment and subsequent recommendations are based on limite

The assessment and subsequent recommendations are based on limited RCT data and PK interaction studies with available DAAs. ARV regimens should be selected or modified to suit the planned hepatitis C treatment. If DAAs are not being considered, standard first-line ART can be used: efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted

atazanavir, ritonavir-boosted darunavir, or raltegravir with TDF/FTC. Didanosine (increased intracellular didanosine levels and risk of toxicity with ribavirin), d4T (increase in risk of mitochondrial toxicity with ribavirin), and ZDV (overlapping toxicity with PEG-IFN and ribavirin) are contraindicated check details [64]. Some retrospective studies have shown abacavir to be associated with a decreased response to PEG-IFN/RBV therapy, possibly due to intracellular reductions in ribavirin level. However, factors including non-weight-based RBV dosing and differential baseline HCV VLs have made these data difficult to interpret. A recent study suggested no find more negative interaction when weight-based

ribavirin was utilised. Nevertheless, caution should be applied when abacavir is to be used with a ribavirin dose of ≤ 1000 mg or ≤ 13.2 mg/kg [65]. When DAAs are chosen, some restriction on first-line ARV choice exists due to drug–drug interactions. Boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TPV) are currently licensed DAAs for the treatment of hepatitis C genotype 1 infection, and are substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P (CYP) 3A4/5 and p-glycoprotein (p-gp), and therefore interact with several ARVs. Boceprevir is also metabolised by aldo-ketoreductase. Resveratrol When using TPV and BOC, only certain ARV agents are recommended for routine use due to DDI concerns (see Table 8.1). Choice of available, safe third

agents differs with use of BOC and TPV. From the limited data and drug–drug interaction studies, we recommend that if BOC is to be used, raltegravir with TDF/FTC should represent first-line ART in the presence of wild-type HIV. For TPV, we recommend that standard-dose ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or raltegravir (RAL) should be used – efavirenz can also be used but TPV dose needs to be increased to 1125 mg tds. Alternative ARVs when treating with either boceprevir or telaprevir are etravirine, rilpivirine and maraviroc, based on available pharmacokinetic (PK) data [66–68]. Multiple DAAs are currently in Phase III trials in coinfected patients.

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