Ten patients showed a complete response and 12 patients showed a partial response to rifampin at a dose of 5 mg/kg per day twice daily.56 When using rifampin
close monitoring of blood tests is needed, serum transaminase levels should be measured at regular intervals due to possible risk of hepatoxicity, which may occur due to rifampin monotherapy and also in up to 13% of patients with concurrent use of pyrazinamide or isoniazid.57,58 Clinical monitoring of rifampin can be achieved through initial evaluation using platelet counts and liver function tests, educating patients about the possible side effects, questioning patients about the occurrence of symptoms that may denote underlying side effects and clinically evaluating selleck products patients with a positive response. Serum testing for hepatic injury is indicated, especially if patients are receiving other hepatotoxic agents such as isoniazid or pyrazinamide. Rifampin at a dose of 300 mg/day improves cholestatic pruritus. Naloxone and naltrexone. Other medications used to manage pruritus are naloxone and naltrexone. A recent review concluded that patients with pruritus due to several causes including cholestasis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis
may benefit from treatment with µ-opioid receptor antagonists.59 Double blind placebo controlled trials show that usage of parenteral naloxone at a Everolimus order dose of 0.4 mg bolus followed by 0.2 µg/kg per min continous infusion, or oral naltrexone at a dose of 50 mg/day is effective in management of cholestatic pruritus.60,61 Zellos et al. reported moderately successful usage of oral naltrexone at a dosage of 1 to 2 mg/kg once daily in four pediatric patients with cholestatic pruritus refractory to ursodeoxycholic acid, bile-acid binding Idoxuridine resins, rifampin and hydroxyzine.
No side effects were experienced in 75% of patients, while one patient stopped medication usage due to nausea and abdominal pain.62 A common side effect to opioid antagonists is the opiate withdrawal reaction, which may be minimized by reducing the dosage of naltrexone administered or admitting the patient for intravenous therapy with naloxone and then switching to naltrexone after 1–2 days.63 Contraindications to naltrexone and nalmefene include acute hepatitis, liver failure and severe liver insufficiency. Opioid antagonists should be avoided in patients with drug addictions or patients receiving opioid containing medications.59 Opioid antagonists are effective as second line agents. Sertraline. Sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), is another therapeutic option for cholestatic pruritus. Its mechanism of action depends on the contribution of serotonin to the pruritogenic pathway in cholestasis.