Table 2 Prognostic factors for disease specific survival in 169 p

Table 2 Prognostic factors for disease specific survival in 169 patients who underwent curative surgery Variable n Univariate Multivariate Hazard ratio 95% CI P -value Hazard ratio 95% CI P -value Age (≥65) 97 1.38 0.73 – 2.70 0.327       Gender (male) 128 1.27 0.60 – 2.49 0.517       Tumor location (distal) 107 0.42 0.22 – 0.78 0.006 0.53 0.27 – 1.05 0.067 Carcinoembryonic antigen (>5 ng/ml) 27 1.71 0.73 – 3.56 0.202       Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (>37 IU/ml)

23 2.33 0.99 – 4.90 0.054       Tumor size (≥50 mm) 76 3.02 1.54 – 6.35 0.001 2.06 0.98 – 4.57 0.056 Tumor depth (pT4, UICC) 55 2.82 1.50 – 5.39 0.001 1.09 0.52 – 2.32 0.815 Tumor differentiation (undifferentiated) 89 1.79 0.93 – 3.60 0.081       Lymphatic involvement 137 5.70 BTK inhibitor ic50 1.74 – 35.2 0.002 1.12 0.14 – 6.12 0.905 Vessel invasion 83 4.10 2.02 – 9.20 <0.001 2.93 1.31 – 7.52 0.008* Invasive growth 41 2.51 1.31 – 4.73 0.006

1.39 0.64 – 3.00 0.404 Lymph node metastasis 86 8.70 3.71 – 25.5 <0.001 4.01 1.40 – 14.6 0.008* Expression of DPYSL-3 mRNA (high) 84 2.36 1.22 – 4.72 0.010 2.22 1.14 – 4.49 0.019* *Statistically significant in multivariable analysis. GC, gastric cancer; CI, confidence interval; UICC, Union for International Cancer Control. Subgroup analysis based on tumor differentiation The prognostic impact of DPYSL3 expression was evaluated in each patients Epigenetics Compound Library in vitro subgroups classified by tumor differentiation. Although statistically significant pheromone difference was exhibited only in patients with differentiated GCs, similar tendency was observed between survival curves of patients with differentiated and undifferentiated GCs. Discussion DPYSL3, located

on 5q32 and encoding a 62-kDa protein [11], has been gaining attention as a metastasis modulator [14,15]. Interestingly, conflicting results have been reported in prostate and pancreatic cancer, implying that DPYSL3 has a diversity of functions among malignancies. In prostate cancer, the expression of both DPYSL3 mRNA and protein was inversely associated with lymph node metastasis and VEGF expression, and forced DPYSL3 expression in cell lines decreased metastasis in a mouse metastatic model [14]. Alternatively, DPYSL3 promoted adhesion and migration in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro as well as metastasis in vivo via activation of other cell adhesion genes [15]. In this study, the association between DPYSL3 expression and malignant behavior of GC was investigated. First, the transcriptional status of DPYSL3 and potential interacting genes were evaluated in GC cell lines. The expression of DPYSL3 mRNA was heterogeneous in each GC cell line, and it showed a significant correlation with known tumor promoting factors (VEGF, FAK and EZR) [27-29]. These results indicated that DPYSL3 may be associated with the activation of cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, as is the case with pancreatic cancer.

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