Similar elevation of Gr1high and F4/80+ cells was

also ob

Similar elevation of Gr1high and F4/80+ cells was

also observed in STAT3Hep−/− mice. In addition, the total number of infiltrating Gr1high and F4/80+ cells was much higher in the livers of STAT3Mye−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice as compared to wild-type and STAT3Hep−/− mice, both before surgery, as well as post-sham and PHx. This suggests that PHx-induced activation of STAT3 in myeloid find more cells inhibits their infiltration into the liver. Figure 3B summarizes the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ. In general, after sham operation, serum levels of IL-6 but not other cytokines were elevated in wild-type mice, whereas both STAT3Mye−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice had higher serum levels of IL-6 as well as TNF-α and IFN-γ. After PHx, serum levels of IL-6 were markedly elevated in wild-type and STAT3Hep−/− mice, such elevation was prolonged

in STAT3Mye−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice. Serum levels TNF-α and IFN-γ were slightly elevated in wild-type and STAT3Hep−/− mice but were dramatically higher in STAT3Mye−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice. In addition, serum TNF-α levels were higher in STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice than STAT3Mye−/− mice 6 and 9 hours post-PHx Next, learn more we investigated the mechanisms underlying liver failure and impaired liver regeneration in STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice by analyzing the activation of the STAT3 pathway, which promotes hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration,12, 16 as well as STAT1 activation, which induces hepatocyte apoptosis and inhibits liver regeneration.21 STAT3 was activated by PHx in wild-type mice, as reflected Clomifene by elevated levels of pSTAT3 that peaked 3-6 hour after surgery (Fig. 4 A). Compared to wild-type mice, in STAT3Mye−/− mice, the STAT3 pathway was constitutively active, with both the STAT3 protein levels and pSTAT3 being elevated (PHx 0 hour), and increased slightly further following PHx. In contrast, hepatic STAT3 and pSTAT3 were both very low in STAT3Hep−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice, as expected. STAT1 activation (pSTAT1) was

not detected in the liver of wild-type and STAT3Mye−/− mice after PHx. However, in both STAT3Hep−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice hepatic levels of pSTAT1 were greatly increased following PHx, with peaks occurring 3-6 hours post-PHx. A delayed increase in the expression of the STAT1 protein was observed 24 to 40 hours post-PHx in STAT3Hep−/− mice, whereas in STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice, STAT1 protein levels were constitutively elevated compared to wild-type and STAT3Hep−/− mice. Weak pSTAT3 activation was also detected in the liver after sham operation in wild-type and STAT3Mye−/− mice but not in STAT3Hep−/− and STAT3Mye−/−Hep−/− mice (Supporting Fig. 4a). Interestingly, in the spleen STAT3 was activated similarly after PHx in all four lines of mice, whereas pSTAT1 activation was not detected in any of them (Supporting Fig. 4b).

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