Secretion of some chemokines, such as CCL-2, CCL-5, CXCL-5

Secretion of some chemokines, such as CCL-2, CCL-5, CXCL-5

and CXCL-8, was significantly reduced when anti-IL-15 mAb was added to the culture medium (Fig. 4b). However, other cytokines, including CCL-4, CCL-11, granulocyte–macrophage Selleck PD0325901 colony stimulating factor and vascular endothelial growth factor were not affected. These data suggest that blocking by anti-IL-15 antibodies has a selective effect on secretion, of particular chemokines, rather than causing a general non-specific suppression of FDC function (Fig. 4c). CD14, CD44, CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) are some of the major surface molecules that play important roles in the cellular interactions between GC-B cells and FDCs.6 We therefore investigated the effect of blocking of the IL-15 signal on FDC surface expression of CD14, CD44, CD54 (ICAM-1) and

CD106 (VCAM-1) via FACS analysis. However, the expression of these surface proteins was not altered by anti-IL-15 mAb treatment (Fig. 5). During GC formation, stromal cells in primary follicles proliferate rapidly and differentiate into FDCs.6 Both TNF-α and LT from GC-B cells have been considered essential soluble factors for FDC development because genetically this website engineered TNF-α-knockout and LT-knockout mice are defective in GC formation. However, a number of gene-knockout mouse studies do not distinguish between FDC development in primary B-cell follicles rather than in the GC.6 Therefore, a proliferation assay with in vitro culture of human primary FDCs could be a plausible system with which to investigate the FDC development during the mature GC formation. Although in vitro culture of human primary FDCs has been established, and studied for decades, only a few proliferation factors, including TNF-α and IL-1β, have been identified.54,55 Previously, we demonstrated

that IL-15 expressed in human tonsillar FDCs enhanced the proliferation of GC-B cells.13 The function of IL-15 has not been extensively studied in FDCs because there is little difference in the humoral immune response of genetically modified mice.25–27 We therefore investigated the biological function of IL-15 on human FDCs. In the present study, we examined GNE-0877 the functional role of IL-15 in FDCs using human primary FDCs. First, we found that the addition of IL-15 enhanced recovery of the FDC proliferation in cultures and that the addition of anti-IL-15 antibody reduced the recovery of cultured FDCs. The FDCs have the IL-15R components necessary for signal transduction by IL-15, as well as IL-15 binding. These observations strongly suggest that IL-15 plays a functional role in FDCs. Interestingly, the effect of IL-15 in increasing the recovery of cultured FDCs is mainly attributed to enhanced proliferation rather than protection from apoptosis, as determined by CFSE labelling.

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