Results: (1) Treatment response of depressive symptoms (BDI, HAM-

Results: (1) Treatment response of depressive symptoms (BDI, HAM-D, MADRS) to venlafaxine at week 4 was associated with the non-s/s (l/l and l/s) genotype of 5-HTTLPR; (2) in repeated measures ANOVA,

the BDI, MADRS and HAM-A scores decreased more significantly in patients with the non-s/s genotype than in those with the s/s genotype, and (3) multiple regression analyses suggested that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is a predictive factor for short-term treatment response to venlafaxine. TGF-beta inhibitor However, 5-HTTVNTR showed no significant association with treatment response to venlafaxine. Both 5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR were not associated with side effects of venlafaxine. Conclusion: The 5-HTTLPR non-s/s genotype can be associated with venlafaxine treatment responses. However, further large-scale studies are warranted to confirm this finding. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: There is increasing evidence that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

is involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and that its peripheral levels represent a reliable mirror of its concentration in the brain. The aim of the present study was to measure BDNF plasma Obeticholic manufacturer levels in patients affected by major depression and to explore the possible relationship between the biological parameter and characteristics of the illness. Method: BDNF plasma levels were evaluated in 30 inpatients suffering from major depression, according to DSM-IV criteria, by means of a commonly employed ELISA

method. The clinical characteristics were assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Results: BDNF plasma levels were significantly lower in the patients with the severest illness compared with the others, and the same was true for patients with dissociative symptoms, severe sleep disturbance and recurrent depression. A significant and negative correlation was observed between the biological parameter and the retardation factor score of the HRSD. Conclusion: These findings suggest that low BDNF levels are related to both recurrence and severity of depression, as well as to symptoms typical of dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Here, we report that the S-acyl-2-mercaptobenzamide thioester (SAMT) class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) inhibitors was able to prevent transmission of HIV-1 from infected cells, including primary cells. Furthermore, when SAMTs were introduced during an HIV-1 challenge of cervical explant tissue, inhibition of dissemination of infectious virus by cells emigrating from the tissue explants was observed.

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