Renal biopsy can be used to determine whether the patients are associated with idiopathic or secondary renal glomerular disease and identify the pathological type of glomerulopathy. However, the anatomical structure of HSK and complex relations to adjoining great vessels and organs increase the difficulty and risk of renipuncture, which is the primary reason for why there are fewer HSK cases who receive renal biopsy. We believe that renal glomerular disease of HSK is one of the possible
factors leading to proteinuria, haematuria and renal dysfunction. Therefore, that the pathological type of glomerulopathy is determined by renal biopsy will benefit treatment and prognosis, but it Bafilomycin A1 chemical structure is essential to evaluate the value and Smoothened Agonist ic50 risks of renal biopsy and to select an appropriate puncture site via imaging. The right renal lower pole is generally the best site for normal kidneys, but the bilateral lower renal poles of HSK are close to the abdominal aorta, and thus, the upper poles may be relatively more secure
than the lower poles. There have been some case reports about the occurrence of glomerulopathy in HSK in the literature. It is believed by the authors of these reports that the co-occurrence of HSK and glomerulopathy may be a coincidence or HSK can predispose glomerular diseases because it facilitates immune complex deposition and amyloid formation.[6-13] But
because few patients with HSKs receive a renal biopsy, there is a lack of evidence elucidating the causal relationship of glomerulopathy and HSK. We appeal for further study to identify the relationship between horseshoe kdieny and glomerulopathy. We conclude that glomerulopathy as immunoglobulin A nephropathy is a possible explanation for the association of HSK with heavy proteinuria. Renal biopsy may be valuable for HSK patients with heavy proteinuria to identify the type of glomerulopathy (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate and facilitate further treatment. Moreover, renal biopsy performed by experienced doctors at the renal upper pole using a standard needle biopsy gun under renal ultrasonic guidance may be viable. However, it is necessary to sufficiently evaluate the value, risk and appropriate puncture site before renipuncture. After percutaneous renipuncture, it is also crucial to pay close attention to potential postoperative complications, especially massive haemorrhage. This work was supported by a grant (2011CB944004) from the National Basic Research Program of China, a grant (2012AA02A512) from 863 program and a grant (2011BAI10B00) from the Twelfth Five-Year National Key Technology R&D Program of China. All the authors declare no competing interests. “
“Polyomavirus BK nephropathy (BKVN) is an important infectious complication in kidney transplantation.