Phases I-III are described in detail in this paper. A literature search for fatigue items was performed in major medical databases. After refinement through several expert panels, the remaining items were used as the basis for adapting items and/or formulating new items fitting the EORTC item style. To obtain feedback from patients with cancer, these
English items were translated into Danish, selleck screening library French, German, and Spanish and tested in the respective countries.
Results: Based on the literature search a list containing 588 items was generated. After a comprehensive item selection procedure focusing on content, redundancy, item clarity and item difficulty a list of 44 fatigue items was generated. Patient interviews (n = selleck chemicals llc 52) resulted in 12 revisions of wording and translations.
Discussion: The item list developed in phases I-III
will be further investigated within a field-testing phase (IV) to examine psychometric characteristics and to fit an item response theory model. The Fatigue CAT based on this item bank will provide scores that are backward-compatible to the original QLQ-C30 fatigue scale.”
“Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study is to determine whether oral vitamin B can be used as a marker of ureteric patency at cystoscopy, and thereby reduce the need for intraoperative intravenous indigo carmine.
Methods Patients scheduled for cystoscopy, or for an operation likely to require a cystoscopy, were given three tablets of vitamin B complex orally 1-4 h prior to their operation. The time of administration, time of operation, and time of cystoscopy were recorded. The time taken for ureteric jets to be visualized was also recorded. The color of the urine was graded by the operator as being clear
(negative) or bright yellow (positive), indicating ureteric patency and that no indigo carmine was required.
Results Sixty-nine women in total were given vitamin B prior to their cystoscopy. One case was cancelled because of presumed but unproven aspiration. In 49 of the remaining 68 cases (72.1%), yellow urine was 3-MA mw seen at both ureteric orifices. In 19 (27.9%) cases, yellow urine was not seen at both ureteric orifices; however, unilateral yellow, clear, or turbulent jets were seen in all but one case. The mean time from dose to cystoscopy was 162 min and the mean time for visualization of both ureteric jets was 2.2 min with no significant difference between groups. Indigo carmine was used in only two cases (2.9%).
Conclusions The results of this study show that oral vitamin B administration preoperatively has the potential to be used to reduce the requirement for intravenous indigo carmine administration. This would have advantages in reducing the cost and toxicity of intravenous indigo carmine administration. Vitamin B warrants further investigation and refinement as a marker of ureteric patency at cystoscopy.