DESIGN: This randomised, open, multicentre, multinational study w

DESIGN: This randomised, open, multicentre, multinational study was conducted in 26 centres and included 1159 patients with smear-positive PTB. 4-FDC daily for 2 months then H+R for 4 months, or single preparations of H, R, Z and E for 2 months followed by H and R for 4 months were administered daily. Sputum smear conversion XMU-MP-1 chemical structure rates at 2, 4 and 6 months (end of treatment [EOT], primary endpoint) and at 9 and 12 months (follow-up) were measured, together with adverse events and the acceptability of the formulations.

RESULTS: Smear conversion rates for 4-FDC and ST at EOT were 80.4% (468/582 patients) vs. 82.7% (477/577) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, and

98.1% (404/412) vs. 98.6% (416/422) in the per-protocol (PP) subgroup. Non-inferiority of 4-FDC was demonstrated at month 2, EOT and follow-up in both the ITT and the PP populations. Overall numbers of adverse events were not significantly different between the groups.

CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the 4-FDC regimen was non-inferior to that of the ST regimens, but patient

acceptability significantly improved with 4-FDC.”
“Purpose: Success after laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) for ureteropelvic junction obstruction is determined based on renal scan (RS) results and patient symptomsultrasonography. The upright or prone position during RS may facilitate drainage. This study reports on outcomes after LP and robot-assisted pyeloplasty (RALP) and determines if patient position (supine vs prone) alters the results of MI-503 concentration the postoperative RS and surgical success. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of LP and RALP performed by one surgeon between 2005 and 2012 was performed. Follow-up consisted of RSultrasonography. find more The paired t test was used to assess for a significant difference between mean T-1/2 for supine vs prone

scans in each patient. Linear regression was used to determine if preoperative split renal function on the affected side or degree of preoperative hydronephrosis predicted difference in supine vs prone T-1/2. Results: There were 11 LP and 81 RALP performed; 84 had follow-up data. There were four (4.3%) failures. Thirty-eight patients had sufficient supine and prone RS for analysis. The difference in T-1/2 between supine and prone RS was significant (mean difference 10.18 +/- 27.28min, P=0.03). Strict success increased to 65.8% from 44.7% and combined strict plus technical success increasedt o 78.9% from 63.1% on prone vs supine RS. Split function and degree of hydronephrosis were not predictors of difference in RS results. Conclusions: LP and RALP have good technical results. Prone position for RS may facilitate drainage and may be a more accurate representation of postoperative outcome after pyeloplasty, particularly in equivocal cases.”
“Background: Non-coverage of households without a landline telephone is a major concern of telephone survey researchers.

02) Growth-retarded infants had 41 2% lower IGF-I (P < 0 0001

02). Growth-retarded infants had 41.2% lower IGF-I (P < 0.0001) and 27.3% lower leptin (P = 0.04) than did infants

with normal growth. Offspring of primiparae had reduced IGF-I and insulin concentrations, and their cortisol concentrations were 25% higher (P = 0.05). Male newborns had lower concentrations of IGF-I, leptin, and insulin than did female newborns.

Conclusions: UNIMMAP supplementation had sex-specific effects on cord IGF-I and leptin concentrations that were of unclear clinical significance. Other pathways may have been involved in the action of UNIMMAP on fetal growth. The specific hormonal pattern in primiparae could be related to constrained fetal growth. Confirmatory studies are warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00642408. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1649-58.”
“Recent animal and human studies have raised concern that exposure to anesthetic agents in children may cause neuronal damage and be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Exposure of young animals to anesthetic agents above threshold doses and durations during a critical neurodevelopmental buy Quisinostat window in the absence of concomitant painful stimuli causes widespread neuronal apoptosis and subsequent abnormal behaviors. The relevance of such animal data to humans is unknown. Untreated neonatal pain and stress also are associated with enhanced neuronal death and subsequent

maladaptive behaviors, which can be prevented by exposure to these same anesthetic agents. Retrospective observational human

studies have suggested a dose-dependent association between multiple anesthetic exposures in early childhood and subsequent learning AG-881 cell line disability, the causality of which is unknown. Ongoing prospective investigations are underway, the results of which may clarify if and what neurodevelopmental risks are associated with pediatric anesthesia. No change in current practice is yet indicated.”
“Background: Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality.

Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth.

Design: We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference.

Results: After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.

Eighty elderly patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (A

Eighty elderly patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, were randomly divided

into two groups CX-6258 to receive either propofol 0.15 ml/kg (n = 40), or ketofol (using a 1:1 single-syringe mixture of 5 mg/ml ketamine and 5 mg/ml propofol) (n = 40) before induction of anesthesia. Sixty seconds after induction, the PLMA was inserted. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure (systolic [S] BP) were recorded prior to the induction of anesthesia, immediately following induction, immediately after PLMA insertion, and 5 and 10 min after PLMA insertion. PLMA insertion conditions were scored according to mouth opening, swallowing, coughing, head and body motion, laryngospasm, and ease of PLMA insertion by the same experienced anesthesiologist, who did not know which agents were used.

There were no differences in PLMA insertion conditions between the groups. The number of patients in need of ephedrine (P = 0.043) and the total dose of ephedrine (P = 0.022) were significantly lower, and apnea duration (P < 0.001) was significantly higher in the ketofol group compared with the propofol group. SBP was significantly higher in the ketofol group than in the propofol group immediately

after PLMA insertion and 5 min after PLMA insertion.

The same PLMA insertion conditions Crenolanib purchase were found with ketofol and propofol. The number of patients in need of ephedrine and the total ephedrine dose were lower and apnea duration was increased in the ketofol group.”
“Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of targeted neonatal hearing screening for the single-session distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) technique and the combined DPOAE/automated

auditory brain-stem response (AABR) technique.

Methods: 3000 high-risk newborns were studied at Children’s Hospital of Fudan University. They were required to take two different screening procedures separately. The first procedure consisted of DPOAE alone and the second consisted of DPOAE combined with the AABR. Based upon the etiology in high-risk babies, they were divided into four groups. In group I there were 670 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) newborns (1340 ears), and in group II there were 890 preterm babies (1780 ears). 850 babies (1700 ears) suffered from hyperbilirubinemia in group III, whereas 790 babies (1580 ears) with asphyxia were in group IV. The babies in groups II, Ill, and IV came from the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) of our hospital. The study protocols consisted of the DPOAE alone and DPOAE combined with AABR hearing screening at an age of less than 1 month, and a diagnostic stage at the age of 2 months.

Results: With single-session DPOAE screening, the referral rate (8% of the NICU babies), the false-positive rate (4.96%) and the false-negative rate (0.8%) were higher. The different etiologies in NICU babies had significantly different referral rates (F-test, p < 0.01).

132 patients were selected from the children’s population that un

132 patients were selected from the children’s population that underwent cochlear implantation at

the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra, from 1992 to 2001, with a minimum follow-up period of 10 years.

A comparison of the pure-tone and speech audiometric thresholds between two periods (T0 and T1) was performed. T0 refers to the initial evaluation, immediately after the rehabilitation programme, within the first year after cochlear implantation. S3I-201 T1 refers to the most recent annual assessment, carried out in 2010 and 2011. Speech understanding was also evaluated through word and sentence recognition tests.

Results: No statistically significant differences were found between early and late assessments, in paediatric cochlear implants users, after a 10 years period of cochlear implantation. Both speech and pure-tone audiometry seem to stabilize except for 2000 Hz where the results were even better after 10 years. Factors such as age at time of implantation, duration of deafness, aetiology and exchange of the speech processor do not seem to have a role in auditory performance after a long rehabilitation period. In tests of verbal discrimination rates of words

and phrases recognition were of 84.6% and 65.1%, respectively.

Conclusions: Cochlear implant is an effective treatment for severe to selleck compound profound hearing loss in children, contributing to a hearing performance and an appropriate language acquisition, currently comparable to normal hearing children. These benefits appear to keep stable

over the years. No deterioration was identified. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The volatile constituents obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Prangos coryombosa at the vegetative and flowering stages were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-one and 28 compounds were identified from the oils obtained from the plant’s aerial parts at the vegetative and flowering stages, respectively. The oil from the vegetative stage was dominated by -elemene (22%) and spathulenol (12.5%), whereas the oil from the flowering period was characterised by -elemene (40.7%) and kessane (10.7%). The main compounds of the oil at the flowering stage were isolated by TLC and their structures were elucidated by 1H and 13C NMR. The results have ecological and taxonomical significance.”
“Objective: To investigate efficacy of bone marrow stem cell implantation in rehabilitation of noise induced hearing loss in rats.

Materials and methods: Hearing loss was induced in male rats by a continuous wide-band noise (816 kHz/120 dB/120 min). Ten microliter of stem cell containing solution was injected by a Hamilton syringe with 30G needle through the round window membrane. Hearing status was examined by, distortion product otoacoustic emissions using DP-OAE.

01), and reduced morbidity (P < 0 01) Surgical staging signif

01), and reduced morbidity (P < 0.01). Surgical staging significantly reduced

postoperative red blood cell (P = 0.03), and after-hours red blood cell (P < 0.01) and component requirements (P = 0.04). Mean total inpatient costs were $89,132 lower for patients undergoing the staged procedure (95% confidence interval of mean cost difference = -$178,899 to -$4661).

Conclusion. Separating the anterior exposure and posterior resection phases of complex sacral tumor resection into two separate surgical episodes of care is associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced inpatient cost.”
“A 10-year, retrospective review of the risk factors and clinical outcome of childhood ischemic stroke treated in a single tertiary care center was conducted. Sixty-two children were identified (33 boys and 29 girls), ages 1 month to 17 years. Risk factors included vasculopathy (35.5%), cardiac disease (17.4%), metabolic disorder (14.5%), infection (14.5%),

and coagulopathy (1.6%). Nine patients (14.5%) had no identifiable cause of stroke and 1 patient had 2 risk factors. Hemiplegia (69.3%) and seizures (32.3%) were the most GS-7977 concentration common presenting features, and seizures were significantly more frequent in children <12 months of age than in older children (71.4% vs 20.8%, P = .001). Recurrence of stroke occurred in 55.6% of patients with metabolic disorder, 33.3% of those with cardiac disease, and 19.0% of those with vasculopathy. Vasculopathy including moyamoya disease was the most important risk factor for ischemic

stroke in Korea, and their prognosis were varied with the etiology of stroke.”
“Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be an effective and well-established treatment for failed back surgery syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, and other neuropathic pain states. Recent advances in this therapy have led to its use in enhancing blood flow and reducing ischemic pain patterns. The application of spinal cord stimulation to treat angina and improve outcomes in patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease is now becoming a part of the algorithmic Selleckchem Apoptosis Compound Library standard of care. This article examines the selection of patients, application of the therapy, outcomes, and future uses of stimulation for patients afflicted with these diseases. This article also examines possible study protocols to further examine the overall outcome of these therapies.”
“Optimizing the possibilities for kidney-paired donation (KPD) requires the participation of donor-recipient pairs from wide geographic regions. Initially it was envisaged that donors would travel to the recipient center; however, to minimize barriers to participation and simplify logistics, recent trends have involved transporting the kidneys rather than the donors. The goal of this study was to review outcomes of this practice. KPD programs throughout the United States were directly queried about all transplants involving live donor kidney transport.

ResultsTreatment with EGF did not affect proliferation of melan-A

ResultsTreatment with EGF did not affect proliferation of melan-A, mouse-derived immortalized melanocytes. Melanocytes treated with LCM had greater prostaglandin-E2 selleck chemicals llc (PGE2) expression and tyrosinase enzyme activity than melanocytes treated with control media. Treatment with EGF lowered melanin production of LCM-treated melanocytes but not of melanocytes treated with control media.

ConclusionOur results support EGF as a candidate target for development of antimelanogenic agents in PIH.”
“Cancer is a complex disease to treat and the treatments have not progressed significantly in the last few years. Alternative strategies such as chemoprevention are being investigated. Proof of concept of chemoprevention has

been shown with the non-steroidal EGFR inhibitor anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): however there is significantly more interest in plant and naturally available compounds for chemoprevention. A number of different naturally occurring chemical compounds are reviewed here. for their potential benefits and the pathways which they may target, in particular the polyamine pathway. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“This study examines the influence of the growth mode on defect formation and strain relaxation in GaN thin films grown

on cone-shaped patterned sapphire (CSPS) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. A dramatic reduction in the luminescence dark spot density and a red-shifted excitonic emission were found for GaN on CSPS compared to GaN on planar sapphire substrates. The results also show that both the crystal quality and optical properties are improved in GaN on CSPS with a strong spatial correlation between the dark spots and local structural properties due to the induced-lateral overgrowth on the cone-shaped patterns. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3388014]“

cardiovascular (CV) risk pretransplant is imprecise. We sought to determine whether cardiac troponin T (cTnT) relates to patient survival posttransplant. The study includes 603 adults, recipients of kidney transplants. In addition to cTnT dobutamine stress echography KU-57788 in vitro and coronary angiography were done in 45% and 19% of the candidates respectively. During 28.4 +/- 12.9 months 5.6% of patients died or had a major cardiac event. cTnT levels were elevated (> 0.01 ng/ml) in 56.2% of patients. Elevated cTnT related to reduced event-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81, CI 1.33-2.45, p < 0.0001) whether those events occurred during the first year or beyond. This relationship was statistically independent of all other variables tested, including older age, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and delayed graft function. cTnT levels allowed better definition of risk in patients with other CV risk factors. Thus, event-free survival was excellent in older individuals, patients with diabetes, low EF and those with preexisting heart disease if their cTnT levels were normal.

This allows for the observation of single-shot NMR signals with v

This allows for the observation of single-shot NMR signals with very high signal-to-noise ratio under conditions where conventional NMR is not possible, due to the low concentration of P-31 and the small equilibrium polarization.(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3577614]“
“QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco

smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers.

METHODS: ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms buy JQ1 and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire.

RESULTS: 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV(1) remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup

of asthmatics only. FVC selleck chemicals llc increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated

eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers.

CONCLUSION: The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.”
“We report a case of a cerebral tuberculoma in a 60-year-old woman with rheumatoid NSC-23766 arthritis while receiving the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, adalimumab (Humira), for active disease. MR brain imaging for dyspraxia revealed a left parietal ring-enhancing lesion, which on resection was shown to be a necrotizing granuloma. There were no associated pulmonary lesions, and the patient was systemically well. Sputum and urine cultures were negative for tuberculosis. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medications and made an excellent recovery. We consider this to be the first documented case of tuberculosis involving the central nervous system occurring in the setting of adalimumab treatment.

We hypothesized that varus

We hypothesized that varus 3-Methyladenine datasheet thrust presence is associated with greater knee frontal plane dynamic movement during the stance phase of gait.

Methods: Participants had knee OA in at least one knee. Trained examiners assessed participants for varus thrust presence during ambulation. Frontal plane knee motion during ambulation was captured using external passive reflective markers and an 8-camera motion analysis system. To examine the crosssectional relationship between varus thrust and frontal plane knee motion, we used multivariable regression models

with the quantitative motion measures as dependent variables and varus thrust (present/absent) as predictor; models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), gait speed, and knee static alignment.

Results: 236 persons [mean BMI: 28.5 C59 nmr kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD) 5.5), mean age: 64.9 years (SD 10.4), 75.8% women] contributing 440 knees comprised the study sample. 82 knees (18.6%) had definite varus thrust. Knees with varus thrust had greater peak varus angle and greater peak varus angular velocity during stance than knees without varus thrust (mean differences 0.90 degrees and 6.65 degrees/s, respectively). These patterns

remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment.

Conclusion: Visualized varus thrust during walking was associated with a greater peak knee varus angular velocity and a greater peak knee varus angle during stance phase of gait. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis ZD1839 Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1

(IGF-1), which has effects similar to insulin, reduces blood glucose level, improves insulin sensitivity and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes (GDM).

Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the concentration of IGF-1 in pregnant women with GDM and 3 months after delivery and find relationships between IGF-1 and clinical and biochemical parameters.

Materials and methods: 67 women between 24th – 28th week of pregnancy were enrolled in the study (46 with GDM and 21 as a control group). All women underwent clinical and biochemical examinations. Concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, CRP, fibrinogen were measured during pregnancy, additionally IGF-1 concentration was determined 3 months after delivery.

Results: IGF-1, glucose, insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, lipids concentrations and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the control group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in IGF-1 concentration was observed in both groups after delivery. In the GDM group significant correlations between IGF-1 and BMI (r=0.370, p<0.05), insulin (r=0.469, p<0.01) and HOMA-IR (r=0.439, p<0.01) were observed.

We elucidated

We elucidated LBH589 how these quantities characteristically contribute to changes in the volumetric contraction-expansion processes of hydrogels. A comparison of these quantities

with the corresponding quantities for (NIPA)(unbonded) residues clearly revealed a significant structural difference between (NIPA)(bonded) and (NIPA)(unbounded). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 3177-3184, 2009″
“Serum levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) may be considered a useful marker of neuronal functioning. We aimed to measure serum NAA in cohorts of migraine and tension-type headache patients versus controls, performing correlations with main clinical features. A total of 147 migraine patients (including migraine without aura, with aura and chronic migraine), 65 tension-type headache (including chronic and frequent episodic tension-type headache) and 34 sex- and

selleck chemicals age-matched controls were selected. Serum was stored at -80 A degrees C. Quantification of NAA was achieved by the standard addition approach and analysis was performed with liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (LC/MS) technique. The NAA levels were significantly decreased in migraine group (0.065 +/- A 0.019 mol/L), compared with both tension-type headache patients (0.078 +/- A 0.016 mol/L) and controls (0.085 +/- A 0.013 mol/L). Control subjects were significantly different from migraine with and without aura and chronic migraine, who differed significantly from episodic and chronic tension-type headache. Migraine with aura patients showed lower NAA levels when compared to all the other headache subtypes, including migraine without aura and chronic migraine. In the migraine group, no significant correlation was found between NAA serum levels, and headache frequency, allodynia

and interval from the last and the next attack. The low NAA in the serum may be a sign of neuronal dysfunction predisposing to migraine, probably based Galardin purchase on reduced mitochondria function.”
“Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher rates of smoking (58-88%) than in the general population (similar to 22%), and are more refractory to smoking cessation. These patients also exhibit numerous neurocognitive deficits, some of which may be ameliorated by cigarette smoking. The neurocognitive benefits derived from nicotine may, in turn, contribute to elevated rates of smoking and smoking persistence in schizophrenia. The present study examined the relationship between neurocognitive function and smoking cessation in schizophrenia.

Methods: Treatment-seeking smokers with schizophrenia (N = 58) participated in a 10-week placebo-controlled trial of sustained-release (SR) bupropion plus transdermal nicotine patch. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated in a subset of patients (n = 31), prior to pharmacological treatment, using a neurocognitive battery.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3503845]“

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3503845]“
“Methods: The study population consisted of 16 consecutive

pediatric patients with focal AT enrolled between March 1991 and June 2009. A retrospective analysis was performed. The patients with focal AT were divided into two groups: the AAT group and other AT (OAT) group, in which the foci arose from other atrial sites.

Results: Fifty percent had AAT. The AAT patients consisted of more males (88% vs 25%; P < 0.05), were more often asymptomatic at the initial visit (75% vs 25%; P < 0.05), and more HDAC inhibitor often presented with an incessant form of the AT (88% vs 25%; P < 0.05) than the OAT patients. Second-degree atrioventricular block during slow ATs of < 120 beats per minute were more often observed in the AAT patients (63% vs 13%; P < 0.05). The incidence of tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy was 19% out of all our subjects and 38% of the AAT patients.

Conclusions: The AATs are the major find more source of focal ATs in pediatric patients that are typically incessant. These characteristics probably explain why a much higher percentage of the patients are presented with TMC. (PACE 2011; 34:177-184).”
“We use a mathematical model, based on the N-tanks-in-series approach, to evaluate the potential advantages that can be obtained in solid-state fermentation processes

by operating packed-bed bioreactors as multi-layer beds. We explore classical operation, in which air is blown unidirectionally through a substrate bed that remains immobile, with two strategies that involve movement of the layers. The first strategy involves batch operation, in which the positions of the layers are changed at I h intervals, in a cycling motion. The second strategy involves continuous plug-flow of the layers, with the regular addition of new layers at the air Outlet and removal of spent layers at the air inlet. AP24534 Under the conditions of the simulation, the rate of metabolic heat generation during the steady

state of the continuous plug-How process is only 60% of the peak value predicted for classical operation. As a result, the maximum bed temperature in the continuous plug-flow process is 4.5 degrees C lower than that predicted for classical operation. We conclude that the operation of multi-layer packed beds in the continuous plug-flow mode can improve bioreactor performance significantly. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We have demonstrated a new method for the large-area graphene growth, which can lead to a scalable low-cost high-throughput production technology. The method is based on growing single layer or few-layer graphene films from a molten phase. The process involves dissolving carbon inside a molten metal at a specified temperature and then allowing the dissolved carbon to nucleate and grow on top of the melt at a lower temperature. The examined metals for the metal-carbon melt included copper and nickel.