However, any potential changes in dialysate sodium concentration

However, any potential changes in dialysate sodium concentration can be mathematically modelled, accurately predicted and clinically compensated within the dialysis prescription such that any clinical consequences are avoided.19 Clearly, the introduction of any new technique – in any medical field – will require extensive staff training and familiarization. While an unavoidable disadvantage for any new method, this should not be allowed to impede the progress of a new technology if that technology is proven to clinically sound and advantageous. If sorbent dialysis

continues to prove clinically applicable and is confirmed to maintain other significant advantages over single pass systems, the difficulties and costs Pirfenidone in vitro of training may be more than

compensated by the potential for patient-specific advantage in size, portability and simplicity. The advantages and disadvantages of single pass and sorbent systems are compared in Table 1. To compete with a single pass system, a sorbent system must be cost-efficient. Table 2 shows the major competing cost components of the two systems. If sorbent costs can be made competitive – especially as economies of scale minimize cost through mass production find more – sorbent dialysis has much to offer in simplicity, portability and safety. Importantly, cartridge costs must be judged against the accumulated expense of R/O water delivery and wet-exposed maintenance that accrue in single pass dialysis systems. It has never been more important to have a basic knowledge of sorbent dialysis systems as it is now, as current dialysis equipment research is significantly sorbent-focused. The impetus for this focus comes, at least in part, from a worldwide resurgence interest in home-based haemodialysis – the needs of which are rooted in ease of use and portability.20 Size reduction, user-interface simplification, portability and travel capability and, in addition, a marked reduction in servicing

frequency, complexity and cost – all largely depend upon the elimination of a continuous water source. Efforts to design a wearable artificial kidney, whether for haemodialysis Pregnenolone or peritoneal dialysis, are also highly dependent on system and driver miniaturization. To restrict the dialysate volume to a ‘wearable’ weight, sorbent-based dialysate regeneration and recirculation seem essential design components. Several sorbent systems are now in various stages of research and development. The Allient® system (Renal Solutions Inc, Warrendale, PA, USA), after Federal Drug Administration approval and successful phase III trials across several sites in the USA,14 has since been acquired by Fresenius Medical Care. Sorbent technology is now being incorporated by Fresenius into options for both home and facility. The Xcorporeal® Wearable Artificial Kidney (the WAK, Lake Forest, CA, USA) has already been the subject of a limited eight patient clinical trial in the UK21 with reported clinical success and good patient acceptance.

We investigated the role of anaesthesia-triggered systemic hyperg

We investigated the role of anaesthesia-triggered systemic hyperglycaemia in impairment of renal functioning, renal tissue injury, intra-renal Angiotensin-II synthesis and endogenous insulin production in anaesthetized rats. Methods:  Eighty-eight Sprague–Dawley rats underwent general anaesthesia for 1 h by different anaesthetic compounds. Some of the animals were either injected with high glucose, or received insulin prior to anaesthesia. Blood Dasatinib mouse pressure, renal functioning estimated by cystatin-C and urea, renal perfusion evaluated by laser Doppler technique, blood glucose and insulin were surveyed. Subsequently, rat kidneys were excised, to

be used for immunohistochemical examinations or preparation of renal extracts for intra-renal Angiotensin-II measurements. Results:  Elevated blood sugar was observed 5 min following induction of anaesthesia, concurrently with deterioration of renal functioning, drop of systemic blood pressure and decreased renal blood flow. Blood insulin concentrations positively correlated with glucose levels. Intra-renal Angiotensin-II was significantly augmented. 3-deazaneplanocin A Immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated enhanced staining for pro-apoptotic proteins and negligible cell proliferation in tubular tissues. Renal damage resultant from anaesthesia-induced hyperglycaemia could be attenuated by insulin injections. Rats challenged with

glucose prior to anaesthesia demonstrated cumulative hyperglycaemia, further increase in insulin secretion, drop of renal blood flow and increased apoptosis. The effects were specific, since they could not be mimicked by replacing glucose with mannose. Conclusion:  Anaesthesia-induced hyperglycaemia affects intra-renal auto-regulation via decreased renal perfusion, thus triggering renal function deterioration and tubular

injury. Increased intra-renal Angiotensin-II aggravates the damage. Tight hypoglycaemic control might prevent or, at least, attenuate Pyruvate dehydrogenase anaesthesia-induced renal injury. “
“Aim:  Smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size has recently been reported as a non-traditional lipid risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and the C/T hepatic lipase (HL) gene polymorphism may promote LDL size reduction via the CETP-mediated exchange of CE for triglyceride (TG) and subsequent HL-mediated TG hydrolysis in LDL. However, little is known about LDL size status and its relationship with CAD prevalence in haemodialysis (HD) patients who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. Methods:  CETP levels, HL genotypes and LDL size were determined, and the determinants of LDL size and its association with CAD prevalence in HD patients (n = 236) aged over 30 years were investigated. Results:  The HD patients had a similar LDL size to the healthy subjects.

Gallen, Switzerland) BALB/c and BALB/c Thy1 1 mice were obtained

Gallen, Switzerland). BALB/c and BALB/c Thy1.1 mice were obtained from Charles River (Germany) and CD4-deficient BALB/c mice were obtained from Jackson Laboratories (USA). Mice deficient for the IFNGR [45], IL-6 [46], and IL-17A [47] mice were backcrossed on the BALB/c background for at least ten times.

Splenic CD4+ effector Th cells were obtained from CT99021 in vivo peptide-immunized mice at the peak of disease on day 21 post immunization [48] and restimulated in vitro for 2 days with 10 μg/mL myhca614–629 peptide and 50 U/mL IL-2. BW 5147 lymphoma cells (kindly provided by Dr. Annette Oxenius, ETH Zürich) were fused to antigen-stimulated splenocytes using polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG 1500; Roche) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Following the substitution of hypoxanthin-aminopterin-thymidine (HAT; Gibco) selection medium, antigen specificity was assessed by ELISPOT assay [48], and positive clones were monoclonolized by limiting dilution. RNA isolation from myhca614–629-specific hybridoma cells was performed using TRIzol (Invitrogen) following the manufacturer’s instructions. cDNA synthesis was performed using Super Script II Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen) and oligo (dT) primers. The TCR V learn more genes were analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR using previously published primer pairs [49]]. The DNA sequence of the myhca614–629-specific TCR was analyzed by PCR sequencing

and sequence alignment using the ImMunoGeneTics information system database (http://www.imgt.org). The TCR variable regions

(Vα-2J42; Vβ-8D-1J2–4) were cloned into TCR cassette vectors [50] using the following PCR primers: α-chain: 5′-ATTACCCGGGGCTTCAGTCTAGGAAGAATGGACACG-3′; 5′-ATTAGCGGCCGCCTTTAACACTTACTTGATTTAACAGAG-3′; β-chain: 5′-ATTACTCGAGCCTGCCTTAGTTCTGAGATGGGC-3′; 5′-ATTACCGCGGCTATACCCCAGCTTACCTAGCACCG-3′. Linearized constructs were injected at an equimolar ratio into fertilized oocytes of the CB6F1xBALB/c background and founder lines were backcrossed to BALB/c. TCR-M mice were kept heterozygous and Aurora Kinase nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. For histological analysis, hearts were fixed in 4% formaldehyde (formafix) for at least 12 h and embedded in paraffin. Histopathological changes were evaluated following hematoxilin/eosin and Elastica van Giesson (EVG) staining. Myocarditis severity was evaluated using a semiquantitative scoring system: 0, no inflammation; 1, <100 inflammatory cells involved, small inflammatory lesions; 2, >100 inflammatory cells involved, larger inflammatory lesions; 3, >10% of the heart section involved in inflammation; 4, >30% of the heart section involved in inflammation; 5, >30% of the heart section involved in inflammation with extensive fibrosis and dilation of ventricle. Images from heart sections were acquired using a Leica DMRA microscope and processed using Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems). In vivo neutralization of IL-17A was done with the anti-mouse IL-17A monoclonal antibody BZN035 (IgG2a).

Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses b

Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses but can induce M2-like phenotype in vivo

that modulates cytokine Decitabine research buy production from CD4+ cells in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. FhTeg induces a RELMα expressing macrophage population in vitro, while in vivo, the expression of Arg1 and Ym-1/2 but not RELMα in FhTeg-stimulated macrophages was STAT6 dependent. To support this finding, FhTeg induces RELMα expression in vivo prior to the induction of IL-13. FhTeg can induce IL-13-producing peritoneal macrophages following intraperitoneal injection This study highlights the important role of FhTeg as an immune-modulatory source during F. hepatica infection and sheds further light on helminth–macrophage interactions. “
“Inflammatory disorders of the peripheral

nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) are common, and contribute substantially to physical and emotional disability of affected individuals. Often, the afflicted are young and in their active years. In the past, physicians and scientists often had very little to offer in terms of diagnostic precision and therapeutic effectiveness. During the past two decades, both of these relative shortcomings have clearly improved. Some of the recent developments in clinical neuroimmunology are illustrated in this special edition of Clinical and Experimental Immunology. “
“Citation Karata S, Aydin Y, Ocer F, Buyru A, Balci H. Hereditary Thrombophilia, anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 IgM, and anti-annexin V antibodies in recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 67: 251–255 Problem Rapamycin mw We investigated the beta2-glycoprotein I and anti-annexin V antibodies as anti-phospholipid–cofactor antibodies; and factor V G1691A Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate

reductase 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MTHFR) C677T mutations as hereditary thrombophilia in recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL). Method of study Study group consisted of 84 women with recurrent pregnancy loss and control group consisted of 84 women having at least one live birth. Results Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous mutation was detected in 28.5% of the study group and in 14.2% of the controls, and the difference was highly significant (P < 0.001). Heterozygous mutation of this gene was found in 64.3% of the study population and in 38.1% of the controls, and difference in heterozygous mutation frequency was also significant (P < 0.001). Both homozygous and heterozygous mutations of PT G20210A and factor V G1691A were not different between the groups. There was no significant difference in anti-annexin V levels and anti-beta2-gp 1 levels of the groups. Conclusion We concluded that both homozygous and heterozygous mutations of MTHFR C677T were related with RPL in Caucasian women. "
“Studies have shown the IL-17A involvement in human ischemic stroke patients in vivo. Whether the IL-17A expression was originated from Th17 and could be stimulated by hypoxia remained unknown.

These studies were supported by a Program Grant (S R H & A R

These studies were supported by a Program Grant (S. R. H. & A. R. K. 334067) and a Postgraduate Research Scholarship (S. A. S. 519426 and R. K. S. P. 284499) from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. None. “
“Leukocyte

movement from the blood to the tissues is a fundamental process in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. While the role of endothelial cells (EC) to recruit leukocytes to sites of inflammation is well known, the mechanisms that control remodeling of EC shape and adhesive contacts during leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) are not completely understood. We studied the role of IQGAP1, an adaptor protein that binds to filamentous-actin and microtubules (MT) at interendothelial junctions, during lymphocyte DAPT solubility dmso TEM. EC IQGAP1 knockdown decreases MT Erlotinib mouse tethered to the adherens junction, and decreases lymphocyte TEM to ∼70% (p<0.05) versus control. Similarly, loss of adherens junction-associated MT induced by brief nocodazole (ND) treatment decreases

lymphocyte TEM to ∼65% of control (p<0.01). Confocal microscopy imaging indicates that EC IQGAP1 knockdown and MT depolymerization both result in lymphocyte accumulation above the vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) junctions and reduces the fraction of adherent lymphocytes that complete diapedesis across interendothelial cell junctions. However, we observe no change in VE-cadherin gap formation underlying adherent lymphocytes among control, IQGAP1 knockdown, or MT depolymerised EC monolayers. These data enough indicate that IQGAP1 contributes to MT stability at endothelial junctions. Further, IQGAP1 is involved in junction remodeling required for efficient lymphocyte diapedesis, independent of VE-cadherin gap formation. Leukocyte extravasation is fundamental to the development of many immune responses including solid-organ allograft rejection. In this process, leukocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into tissues through the endothelial

cells (EC) that line the walls of vessels, i.e. leukocytes undergo transendothelial migration (TEM). Whereas the specific adhesion molecules, chemoattractants, and possibly signaling pathways involved in TEM are unique among different subgroups of leukocytes and vascular beds, the interaction between leukocytes and EC during TEM can be generalized into a multicascade event, described in recent reviews 1–3. EC and leukocyte adhesion molecules mediate tethering and rolling of leukocytes on EC followed by chemokine-mediated leukocyte activation, then firm adhesion to the EC. Finally, adherent leukocytes crawl on the surface of endothelium, undergo diapedesis, and enter tissues by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Leukocyte transmigration may occur by either a transcellular, through EC, or paracellular route, between adjacent EC 4–6.

Finally, FcR γ-chain-deficient mice are devoid of FcεRI and there

Finally, FcR γ-chain-deficient mice are devoid of FcεRI and therefore any FcεRI-mediated effects of OVA-specific IgE during the sensitization or challenge phase, either due to mast-cell activation or altered DC function, is absent in these mice. Although the sensitization/challenge model that we used does not require B cells or antibodies, including

allergen-specific IgE, FcεRI, or mast cells 21, 22, it remains possible that in vivo FcεRI facilitated enhanced antigen-uptake or activation of pulmonary DC indirectly through mast-cell activation 23, 24. In contrast to previous studies 13, 14, 17 that employed BMDC and sensitization of FcγR-deficient mice, we aimed to specifically delineate the contribution MLN8237 mouse of FcγR on lung DC during the challenge phase of the murine asthma model. We first confirmed the expression of FcγR expression on lung DC and compared their function to spleen-derived DC subpopulations, as the importance of considering the phenotypic, functional and anatomical differences of various DC subsets has been supported by several studies 25. Thus, our studies

focus on Adriamycin concentration DC populations obtained from lymphoid organs in addition to pulmonary DC to study the function of FcγR. This revealed that lung DC and splenic CD8− DC gave rise to increased CD4+ T lymphocyte stimulation when DC acquired antigen as immune complexes via FcγRI, FcγRIII or FcγRIV. This effect was absent when CD8+ DC or FcR γ-chain deficient DC were used. These observations would be consistent with the view that contamination oxyclozanide of OVA with endotoxins was not responsible for these alterations. Additional results support this interpretation. First, DC of TLR4-deficient mice led to increased T-cell proliferation after exposure to OVA-IC as compared to OVA alone. Second, serum of sensitized mice, which contained anti-OVA IgG, caused increased T-cell proliferation when given together with OVA to WT lung DC. This effect was antigen-specific, as serum of BSA-sensitized

mice did not cause this outcome, and FcγR-dependent, given that FcR γ-deficient DC did not result in increased T-cell proliferation. Several observations support the impact of FcγR on DC during the effector phase of pulmonary hypersensitivity. First, we adoptively transferred Th2-biased antigen-specific CD4+T lymphocytes 4 into antigen-naïve mice, thereby restricting the induction of pulmonary hypersensitivity mainly to the DC–T-cell interaction. Second, pulmonary exposure of mice to OVA-IC dramatically increased eosinophilia in the BALF and cellular infiltration in the lungs, an effect that was not observed in naive mice and thus not induced non-specifically. Third, the increased pulmonary immune reaction induced by OVA-IC was paralleled by a highly significant increase in proliferation of antigen-specific T cells, both in vitro as well as in vivo.

TNF binds to TNFR1 (receptor subunits, p55–p60) and TNFR2 (recept

TNF binds to TNFR1 (receptor subunits, p55–p60) and TNFR2 (receptor subunits, p75-p80). TNFR1 is constitutively expressed by most cell types, and TNFR2 expression is induced mainly in immune and endothelial cells. Therefore, any factor that affects the serum level of TNF might be important in outcome of disease. The presence of polymorphism in regulatory GSK-3 activity region may alter regulation expression level

and thus affect disease manifestation. Regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription is the most important. Several mechanisms play important role in gene regulation. Promoter hypermethylation and the presence of polymorphism in regulatory region are the two most important factors that interfere with the gene regulation, and our hypothesis is that during disease conditions, there is upregulation or downregulation of gene (transcriptional dysregulation). For example, infection of Plasmodium falciparum upregulates the expression of TNF-α. In certain cancers, there is downregulation

of genes. Promoter polymorphism lies in transcription factor–binding sites (cis elements) and hypermethylation Maraviroc cell line of CpG (CG dinucleotide) islands can contribute to dysregulation. CpG islands are present in the promoters regions of almost half of mammalian genes [147], leading to gene silencing. DNA methylation could repress transcription by either or both of the following two mechanisms: (1) the methyl group may disrupt the binding sites of the transcription factors (TFs) and result in the failure of transcription [148–150]. (2) Methylated cytosines may attract methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBD) which would bring repressors to silence the gene [151]. Methylation in CpG

Island interferes with gene regulation and thus responsible for outcome of disease. There is an inverse correlation of DNA methylation next with gene expression. High levels of DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters are strongly associated with downregulation of gene expression [151]. The several reports observed a strong anticorrelation of DNA methylation with CpG density and GC content, indicating that DNA methylation declines the more the sequence resembles a CpG island [45, 151, 152]. Methylation levels of 1320 CpG sites in regulatory regions of 416 genes in cells from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) children were studied by Milani et al. [153]. A large number of diseases have been reported, in which promoter polymorphism affects the susceptibility to diseases (Tables 1–3). DNA sequence variations (polymorphism) that affect the transcription of genes play important roles in the pathogenesis of many complex diseases [154].While most discovered genetic defects create missense or non-sense substitutions in protein-coding sequences, there remain disease-associated genes for which there is no difference in protein-coding information between individuals of different phenotypes.

7) Of note, not all previously characterized regulatory elements

7). Of note, not all previously characterized regulatory elements of the TNF/LT locus were confirmed by genome-wide analysis. In particular, NF-κB/NFAT-binding enhancer, located downstream of TNF gene [14, 15, 24, 36, 37, 55, 65], was not clearly detected in immunocytes by DNase-seq (Supporting Information Fig. 1A and B), suggesting that it may be active in other cell types [65]. We also did not observe binding of this sequence to either NF-κB or

NFAT family members in pull-down assay (Fig. 4A) using protein lysates from PMA/ionomycin-activated Dabrafenib price T cells. TNF belongs to the primary response genes with a short CpG island containing promoter ([13, 66] and Supporting Information Fig. 8A, top part), implying active chromatin conformation independent from SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complexes when CpG dinucleotides are unmethylated [13]. Notably, CpG content of the TNF promoter and its accessibility to DNase I in T cells are relatively low in comparison with other primary response genes selleck kinase inhibitor with CpG island

containing promoters [13, 67]. We have shown here that CpG island is unmethylated at the proximal promoter/TSS area of the mouse TNF gene in both T cells and macrophages (Supporting Information Fig. 8A, bottom part), in agreement with the earlier reports of TNF promoter methylation status in human immune cells [66, 68, 69]. Nevertheless, we detected a more open chromatin conformation at the TNF TSS in macrophages compared to T cells (Figs. 1 and 2). Further comparative analysis

of protein complexes preoccupying proximal promoter/TSS of TNF gene in macrophages and T cells should be performed in the future. Chromatin remodeling at the TNF TSS in peripheral T cells Carbohydrate occurred within 1 h from a closed conformation in the quiescent state to an open configuration (Fig. 2) and presumably was driven by transcription factors NFATc2 and c-Jun (Figs. 4A and B and 5). Mechanistically, this effect could be explained by an overlap/competition of a putative nucleosome positioned at the proximal promoter/TSS of TNF (approximately −72 to +73 bp from the TSS) with NFAT- and AP-1-binding sites (Supporting Information Fig. 8, upper part). We cannot exclude displacement of the nucleosome by the so-called enhanceosome protein complex, anchored by upstream NFAT- and AP-1-binding sites [70]. Decreased nucleosome stability might be also due to increased transcriptional activity upon stimulation [71]. Additional epi-genetic mechanisms such as histone modifications may be involved in chromatin remodeling upon T-cell polarization. In particular, we detected a higher level of H3K4me3 in cells polarized under Th1 or Th17 conditions (Fig. 3D and Supporting Information Fig.

[53] Serotonergic drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inh

[53] Serotonergic drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), are widely used to treat panic disorder and depression, and ameliorated OAB in selected patients.[54] These drugs are thought to act on both efferent and afferent fibers from the bladder. On the other hand, brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has anxiogenic effects and increases

bladder sensation.[55] Irritable bowel syndrome is highly prevalent in anxiety and mood disorders, and CRF receptor antagonists could ameliorate increased bowel sensation in those patients.[56] Dabrafenib clinical trial These findings suggest that increased bladder sensation can be a reflection of biological changes in both the emotion and micturition circuits within the brain. In contrast, the emotional mechanism

underlying the underactive/acontractile detrusor is not well understood. Neurogenic cases such as brain tumor and stroke[57, 58] and functional imaging studies[15, 16] have suggested that the cingulate cortex and insular cortex are the key areas for the generation of micturition impulses, which are sent to the brainstem structures. Therefore, functional changes in these areas might also occur in depressive/anxious patients with bladder PI3K Inhibitor Library purchase dysfunction. In somatoform disorders other than autonomic, functional neuroimaging studies have shown a decrease in the activity of frontal and subcortical circuits involved in motor control, and increases in the activities of supplementary motor area and midline regions for hysterical

motor paralysis.[59-61] However, in somatoform disorder of the bladder, no functional neuroimaging acetylcholine studies are available. Serotonergic and GABAergic drugs are the mainstay in the treatment of depression/anxiety. What is the effect of these drugs on the bladder function? Central serotonergic neurons participate in a variety of physiological functions. Recent evidence has shown that centrally administered serotonin has modulatory effects on bladder function, the main actions of which are facilitation of urine storage.[52, 62] While inhibiting the bladder, serotonin facilitates sacral anterior horn cells innervating the urethra, presumably via inhibitory interneurons, leading to urethral contraction.[52, 63] Most central serotonin is physiologically released from nerve terminals of the brainstem raphe nucleus. There is a variety of micturition-related neuronal activity in the raphe nucleus, and microstimulation has been shown to elicit inhibition of the bladder.[64] This effect might be due to activation of the raphe-spinal descending pathways, which in turn suppresses the sacral preganglionic neurons via inhibitory serotonin 1A receptors; it might also be due to suppression of the sensory afferent in the spinal posterior horn.

The influence GM-CSF exerts on Flt3L-induced DC development has n

The influence GM-CSF exerts on Flt3L-induced DC development has not been thoroughly examined. Here, we report that GM-CSF alters Flt3L-induced DC development. When BM cells were cultured with both Flt3L and GM-CSF, few CD8+ equivalent DCs or plasmacytoid DCs developed compared to cultures supplemented with Flt3L alone. The disappearance of these two cell subsets in GM-CSF + Flt3L culture was not a result of simple inhibition of their development, but a diversion of the original differentiation trajectory to form a new cell population. As

a consequence, both DC progeny and their functions were altered. The effect of GM-CSF on DC subset development was confirmed in vivo. First, the CD8+ DC numbers were increased under GM-CSF deficiency Pexidartinib (when either GM-CSF or its receptor was ablated). Second, this population was decreased under GM-CSF hyperexpression (by transgenesis or by Listeria infection). Our finding that CHIR99021 GM-CSF dominantly changes the regulation of DC development in vitro and in vivo has important implications for inflammatory diseases or GM-CSF therapy.

Dendritic cells (DCs), named for their characteristic morphology, are important for maintenance of tolerance in the absence of acute infection and inflammation (steady state), and induction of the adaptive immune response during inflammation. However, DCs are short-lived and need to be continuously replenished from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells [1]. In mice, multiple DC subsets with distinct phenotypes exist see more to perform different immunological functions [2]. Generally speaking, three major types of DCs exist in steady-state conditions: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), resident lymphoid organ DCs (resident DCs), and peripheral tissue migratory DCs (migratory DCs) [2, 3]. Resident DCs exist in lymphoid tissue, while migratory DCs are present in nonlymphoid tissues and transit to lymphoid organs upon activation. Under inflammatory

conditions, however, a fourth type of DCs termed “monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs” (mDCs) emerge. The DCs produced in these conditions do not fully resemble DCs found in steady state and utilize a distinct developmental pathway [4, 5]. Phenotypically, pDCs bear the surface markers CD11c+CD45RA+, whereas resident DCs, also called “conventional DCs” (cDCs), are subdivided into CD11c+CD45RA− major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II)+CD205+CD8α+ (CD8+ cDCs) and CD11c+CD45RA−CD11b+MHCII+CD8α− DCs (CD8− cDCs) [6]. CD8+ cDCs exhibit higher Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, high IL-12 secretion on activation, MHC class I presentation, and cross-presentation activities, while CD8− cDCs exhibit stronger MHC class II presentation activity [7, 8]. Migratory DC populations share certain markers with resident DCs (e.g.