Our study suggests that variety in bacterial tannases may reflect

Our study suggests that variety in bacterial tannases may reflect adaptation to various tannin substrates present in the environment. This is the first comparative study of closely related bacterial tannases, which may be as functionally diverse as bacterial β-glucosidases required for the break down of the plant-based glucosides [28], reflecting the possible “co-evolutional LY294002 in vitro arms race” between plants and bacteria. Conclusion In the present study, we identified the genes encoding tannase, designated tanLpa and tanLpe, were cloned from Lactobacillus paraplantarum NSO120 and Lactobacillus pentosus 21A-3, which shared 88% and 72% amino acid identity with TanLpl,

cloned from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC CUDC-907 molecular weight 14917T, respectively. Our comparative analysis showed that Lactobacillus tannase genes had a little diversity in each other, forming a phylogenetic cluster in the known tannase genes in silico. Meanwhile, TanLpl, TanLpa,

and TanLpe that were recombinant enzymes of tanLpl, tanLpa, and tanLpe expressed in Bacillus subtilis RIK 1285 showed appreciable difference in enzymological acitivity against several CP-690550 chemical structure galloyl esters, in which TanLpa, for example, had markedly higher catalytic activity than TanLpl and TanLpe against some galloyl esters of green tea catechins (i.e. epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, catechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate). This is the first comparative study of closely related bacterial tannases. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, Creation of Innovation Centers for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Areas (Innovative Bioproduction Kobe), MEXT, Japan and a grant from Maruzen Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic supplementary material

Additional file 1: Table S1: The strains used in this study. Table S2. Kinetic properties of A. orazae tannase. Figure S1. Chemical structures of substrates used in this study. MG: methyl gallate, Cg: catechin gallate, GCg: gallocatechin gallate, ECg: epicatechin gallate, EGCg: epigallocatechin, Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) gallate, EGCg3″Me: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate. Figure S2. Alignment of bacterial tannases. The sequences of TanA (Staphylococcus ludunensis),S. gallolyticus tannase 1 (Streptococcus gallolyticus, accession no. YP_003430356), and S. gallolyticus tannase 2 (accession no. YP_003431024) were obtained from the Genbank database. G-X-S-X-G motif is indicated with red color bar. Figure S3. Phylogenetic tree analysis of tannase superfamily homologous to TanLpl, TanLpa, and TanLpe by Maximum. Likelihood Method. Total of 22 predicted bacterial tannase proteins were selected for the phylogenetic tree analysis. (PDF 496 KB) References 1. Aguilar CN, Rodríguez R, Gutiérrez-Sánchez G, Augur C, Favela-Torres E, Prado-Barragan LA, Ramírez-Coronel A, Contreras-Esquivel JC: Microbial tannases: advances and perspectives.

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