Operating time charges

Operating time charges GSK2118436 clinical trial are generally calculated in intervals of 15–30 min. During the robotic approach, the setup of the equipment is considerably longer compared to the laparoscopic or open surgery procedure but of course this can be improved when a well-trained

surgical team is implicated in the setup.[32] Moreover, the operative time depends on the experience of both the operator and the surgical team. The learning curve may present great variation being subject to the surgeon’s capability.[3] Also, the costs related to the learning curve are considered as elevated or more often as an additional cost due to the fact that surgeons have already gone through a training program for open and laparoscopic operations.[33] It should also be mentioned that in order to reduce the costs related to the learning curve, a high caseload and virtual reality simulators

are necessary.[33, 34] Minimally invasive surgery has been shown to have benefits over laparotomy for the treatment of patients with a variety of gynecologic pathologies.[35, 36] A smaller incision diminishes postoperative pain, shortens recovery time, reduces hemorrhaging, generates a better cosmetic result and poses fewer complications. These are some of FK506 the principal advantages of minimally invasive surgery over the open surgical method. Especially, robotic procedures can minimize the cost of operating on elderly or morbidly obese patients with comorbidities, as they minimize the hospital stay in these patients. On the contrary, lack of depth perception, absence of direct tactile sensation by the surgeon and limited range of motion at the surgical site are some of the major limitations of minimally invasive surgery.[37] In the field of gynecologic surgery, as far as the overall costs of the open and laparoscopic approaches, P-type ATPase there is no statistically significant difference.[35] The duration of hospital stay also has a substantial impact on the overall charge of hospitalization. Minimally invasive surgical techniques (both robotic and laparoscopic approaches) generally

require a shorter hospital stay than the open methods.[4] For this reason, the obtained cost savings due to the decreased number of hospital days can compensate the increased operative expenses of the minimally invasive techniques. For example, patients treated robotically or laparoscopically have a mean hospitalization of 1–2 days while those treated with open surgery often stay for more than 4 days.[11, 18] In the study by Tan-Kim et al., even though the maximum hospital stay was 42 days, the median duration was 1 day.[23] Moreover, the costs of hospitalization are also in correlation with the type of health-care structure, the health system and the type of health insurance.[3, 38] Cost data in this field are difficult to analyze as they differ between countries as well as the private and public sectors.

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