monocytogenes [19], with an added advantage that it provides

click here monocytogenes [19], with an added advantage that it provides Lazertinib in vitro unambiguous results comparable among laboratories via the internet. L. monocytogenes is well recognized to be divided into 3 lineages [20, 21]. In a recent study, Wiedmann et al. discovered a fourth lineages, however, lineages III and IV were rare [22]. Brisse et al. established a standardized MLST scheme using seven housekeeping genes and used it to characterized a large collection of L. monocytogenes isolates [23]. An MLST database was also established which allows

other researchers to submit new MLST data and facilitates international comparison although the use of unpublished MLST data in the database is restricted. Listeriosis is uncommon in China and there was no report of human outbreaks so far. This may be partly due to lack of surveillance of clinical listeriosis. Surveillance of L. monocytogenes in foods has been implemented nationally and L. monocytogenes has been isolated from

foods and food processing environments in China including chicken, pork, fish and vegetables [24–27]. Zhou Foretinib in vivo et al analyzed 38 L. monocytogenes isolates from food products and sewage samples in China using single gene sequencing of the actA gene while Jiang et al. [28] characterized 20 L. monocytogenes isolates from Zhejiang province of China by a non-standardized MLST scheme based on three virulence genes and four housekeeping genes. Neither of these sequence data allows one to make a comparison with the current extensive international MLST data. In this study, isolates were obtained from different food products through food surveillance from 12 provinces or cities across China, and analyzed by serotyping, PFGE and MLST to further determine the genetic diversity of Chinese L. monocytogenes Amobarbital isolates and to compare Chinese isolates with international isolates from published studies. Methods L. monocytogenes isolates Two hundred and twelve isolates of L. monocytogenes from 12 provinces/cities in China were used for this study. The isolates were from different

food products isolated by local food surveillance laboratories between 2000 and 2008 (Table  1). Food surveillance was generally conducted with random sampling from open markets and production plants periodically based on national surveillance guidelines. Our isolates were a random sample of these surveillance isolates and were not known to be linked by transmission chain or food sources. The isolates were identified by PCR targeting hly fragments specific for L. monocytogenes and serotyped using antiserum against somatic and flagella antigens according to the instructions of the manufacture (Denka Seiken, Tokyo, Japan). Table 1 Summaries of  Listeria monocytogenes   isolates used in this study by sequence types Sequence type No.

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