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unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 11:296–310CrossRefPubMed Vandenkoornhuyse P, Baldauf SL, Leyval C, Straczek J, Young JP (2002) Extensive fungal diversity in plant roots. Science 295:2051CrossRefPubMed Waldrop MP, Zak DR, Blackwood CB, Curtis CD, Tilman D (2006) Resource availability controls fungal diversity ICG-001 molecular weight across a plant diversity gradient. Ecol Lett 9:1127–1135CrossRefPubMed White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MH, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego, pp 315–322″
“Introduction Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti is a host-specific

pathogen of Eucalyptus species that occurs over a wide geographical range varying from selleck chemical dry to very humid zones including those in Australia, India, Hawaii (Sankaran et al. 1995), New Zealand (Gadgil and Dick 1999), Brazil (Ferreira et al. 1998), Japan, Laos, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam (Old and Yuan 1994; Old et al. 2003). The fungus can be associated with various disease symptoms including leaf spots, shoot blight, cankers on woody tissue, defoliation and even tree death. The leaf spots develop on both sides of leaves and vary in size, shape, and colour among Eucalyptus species (Sharma 1994; Sankaran et al. 1995; Old et al. 2002, 2003). The fungus proliferates by producing

a vast number of spores from conidiomata that develop on infected leaves and shoots. After causing death of shoot tips or small branches, repeated infection can occur over extended second periods of time. Leaf blight and other foliar diseases induced by C. eucalypti can easily be confused with those caused by other plant-pathogenic fungi, such as Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs (Cheewangkoon et al. 2008, 2009; Crous 2009), and AR-13324 solubility dmso Calonectria (Crous et al. 2004b, 2006a; Lombard et al. 2009, 2010). Although infection by C. eucalypti can eventually lead to yield reduction of Eucalyptus plantations, the biology of this pathogen is not well understood. Infection often appears to be associated with minor mechanical, insect or wind damage (Ciesla et al. 1996), or with lesions caused primarily by Calonectria spp. (Park et al. 2000; Crous 2002).

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