Mol Cancer Ther; 9(6); 1709-18 (C)2010 AACR “
“The interleu

Mol Cancer Ther; 9(6); 1709-18. (C)2010 AACR.”
“The interleukin-12B (IL12B) gene encodes the p40 chain of IL-12, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that antagonizes Th2 phenotype and, hence, may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. In this report, we describe the identification of a

novel IL12B promoter polymorphism (T-to-A exchange) at position -536. The IL12B -536AA genotype was significantly associated with asthma in the Chinese populations (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 2.227). The selleck compound risk-associated A allele was linked to reduced expression of IL12B mRNA levels and IL12B production in asthmatic patients. Luciferase reporter assay provided evidence that risk-associated A allele reduced the promoter activity of IL12B gene compared with those of the promoter containing the protective T allele. We further observed that decreasing binding effects between the risk alleles A of IL12B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) through A allele sequence mediated streptavidin-conjugated agarose pulldown and biotin-labelled A allele mediated electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We also observed additive effects of the risk alleles of IL12B and decreased mRNA levels of C/EBPa in asthmatic HCS assay patients. Therefore, we postulated

that the presence of -536A allele in IL12B promoter could predispose to the development of allergic asthma.”
“P>Background:\n\nEmergency medicine (EM) in North America has been undergoing significant transformation since the new century. Recent health care reform has put it center stage. Access demand for acute care is increasing at the same time the number of qualified emergency physicians entering service has reached a plateau. Physician assistants (PAs), one alternative, are employed in emergency departments (EDs), but little is known about the impact of their role.\n\nObjectives:\n\nThis was a literature review to identify the current role of PAs in patient treatment and the management of

emergency services.\n\nMethods:\n\nAll publications and designs from 1970 through 2009 were identified using multiple science citation indices. Each author reviewed the literature, and categories were developed based on consensus.\n\nResults:\n\nThirty-five articles Selleckchem LDN-193189 and reports were sorted into categories of interest: prevalence of PAs in EDs, efficiency and quality of care, patient satisfaction, rural emergency care, and legal issues. Each category is summarized and discussed. Evidence comparing the clinical effectiveness of PAs to mainstream management of emergency care was only fair in methodologic quality.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe use of PAs in EDs is increasing, and this expansion is due to necessity in staffing and economy of scale. Unique uses of PAs include wound management, acute care transfer management to the wards, and rural health emergency staffing.

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