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preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Sexual dysfunction following surgery for rectal cancer is variable and the literature of the past reported rate until 100% of the patients. [1–9]. In the last report  the rate of total impotence in men is 32%. The explanation is a damage of the pelvic autonomic nerves with consequence on sexual functioning in males and females (erection, ejaculation, drive). Neurophysiological techniques such as electromyography 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase of the pelvic floor, examination of the sacral reflex (SR), pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials (PEPs), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), have been employed in recent years to evaluate this complication [10–12]. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the occurrence of sexual dysfunction from both a clinical point of view and by means of neurophysiological tests in patients submitted to surgery for rectal cancer. Methods We studied a group of 57 patients (43 males and 14 females, mean age 57.