It is therefore likely that IL-4R-α expression on airway epithelium might represent an important feedback mechanism through which IL-4 and IL-13-secreting immune cells enhance
Th2-cell immunity in ongoing immune responses. Interleukin 1α and IL-1β are among the first described members of the prototypical IL-1 cytokine family that also includes IL-18, IL-33 (IL-1F11), and many others. IL-1β is synthesized as a proform that requires cleavage via the inflammasome-caspase-1 axis to be secreted as a biologically active cytokine. There is renewed interest in the role of IL-1 and related cytokine family members in promoting asthmatic airway inflammation, due to new evidence in HDM-driven models of asthma, as well as to genetic polymorphism studies in human cells . Indeed, initially it was thought that IL-1 played only a minor role GSK2126458 order in asthma, as symptoms in the classical OVA-alum model of asthma were not reduced in IL-1R-deficient mice. [46, 47]. Using radiation-induced bone marrow chimeric mice and exploiting the natural route of pulmonary exposure to HDM allergen, we have recently found that IL-1R triggering on radioresistant check details lung epithelial cells promotes the innate immune response to natural allergen . Autocrine release of IL-1-α by HDM-exposed bronchial
epithelial cells leads to TSLP, GM-CSF, and IL-33 production by epithelial cells, and IL-1α is required for the development of Th2 immunity to HDM in vivo (Fig. 2) . It is still unclear whether the inflammasome-caspase1-IL-1α axis is involved in asthma development as one group failed to see an effect of Nlrp3 deficiency on asthma development in their mouse model whereas other groups found a role when allergens were introduced via the skin or alum was used as an adjuvant [43, 48, 49]. Interleukin-33 has been shown to act upstream of the type-2 effector cytokine cascade, by stimulation of various innate and adaptive immune cells, and by inducing the apoptosis
of lung epithelial cells. Allergic asthma patients express Loperamide higher levels of IL-33, as determined by mucosal biopsies, as compared with those of healthy subjects, and genetic association studies have identified SNPs in the lL-33 and IL-33R (T1/ST2) locus associated with asthma [50, 51]. In mice, neutralization of IL-33 blocks development of lung Th2 immunity to a number of allergens, such as HDM and peanuts, as well as to lung-dwelling parasites such as hookworms [41, 52, 53]. Numerous cells of the innate immune system, such as DCs, macrophages, basophils, mast cells, and eosinophils express T1/ST2 (the receptor for IL-33) and stimulation of these cells by IL-33 leads to prolonged survival and/or activation, often leading to increased Th2 immunity in mouse models of allergy and asthma [50, 52, 54-57]. Little is known, however, about the mechanism of IL-33 release from epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells .