Irrespective of

the type of stimulus reaching errors to t

Irrespective of

the type of stimulus reaching errors to these implicit targets are gaze-dependent, and do not differ from those found when reaching to remembered explicit targets. Implicit target locations are coded and updated as a function of relative gaze direction with respect to those implied locations just as explicit targets are, even though no target is specifically represented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: An inverse association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome has been reported in several cohorts, but very few specific studies are available in the elderly, in whom neurological and musculo-skeletal diseases are expected to lead to a remarkable age-related decline of physical activity.

Aim and Design: The relationships among physical activity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were Cell Cycle inhibitor assessed in a cross-sectional study concerning 1144 subjects aged 65-91 years resident in Pianoro (northern Italy). Household and leisure-time activities were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly-PASE). Routine clinical and biochemical data (including fasting insulin) were used to assess insulin resistance [Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) method] Roscovitine nmr and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

Results: All PASE scores were inversely correlated with waist circumference, triglycerides and HOMA index, with highest significance for leisure-time

activities (P <= 0.005). The PASE score for household activities was also correlated inversely with blood glucose (P < 0.05), and directly with HDL cholesterol (P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among sedentary subjects (corresponding to the low tertile of leisure-time activities) than in the remaining more active population (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.03, P = 0.007), independently

of possible confounders.

Conclusion: Physical activity Lormetazepam is inversely associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome even in the elderly. Community programs favoring physical activity are expected to significantly improve the health status in these subjects.”
“The biology of spermatogonial stem cells is currently an area of intensive research and contemporary studies in primates are emerging. Quantitative regulation of sperm output by the primate testis seems to be exerted primarily on the transition from undifferentiated to differentiating spermatogonia. This review examines recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms governing spermatogonial renewal and early differentiation in male primates, with a focus on the monkey. Emerging revisions to the classic view of dark and pale type A spermatogonia as reserve and renewing spermatogonial stem cells, respectively, are critically evaluated and essential features of endocrine control of undifferentiated spermatogonia throughout postnatal primate development are discussed.

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