Introduction of the flhD4131 allele into YK410 (λPmcb-lacZ) by transduction with phage P1vir also did not change the levels of β-galactosidase expression. The difference in Pmcb-lacZ expression between YK410 and YK4131 is not dependent on the thyA allele present (data not shown). Using Hfr mapping, we have localized the region in YK4131 that is responsible for decreased stationary-phase activity of Pmcb to between 9 and 36 min on the
E. coli chromosome. Our results suggest that more than one mutation may be needed for the phenotype as we recover Forskolin solubility dmso three classes of exconjugants. In addition to recombinants that have the expected high and low levels of β-galactosidase activity, we recovered recombinants with intermediate levels of β-galactosidase activity. We plan to sequence the genomes of YK410 and YK4131 in order to identify the mutation(s). In addition to the mcb operon, five E. coli genes or operons have been reported to be regulated by FlhD independent of FlhC (Prüßet al., 2003). Because these genes were identified using YK410, YK4131, and YK4136 (an flhC derivative of YK410), the observed effects on gene expression may also be due to the same unidentified mutation(s) in strain YK4131 that affects expression from Pmcb. Further study is needed to answer this
question. This work was supported in part by a National Institutes of Health James A. Shannon Director’s Award (GM49770) to D.A.S. The authors thank Philip Matsumura and Birgit Prüß for strains, Mike Manson and
Susan Van Way for strains selleck chemicals and advice on swarm assays, Daren Zentz, Yen Hoang Nong, Sylvia Ontiveros, and Rami Weaver for help performing growth assays, and Jim Hu and Matt Sachs for critical comments on the manuscript. “
“Captive snakes, that is, a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus) a yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus guttatus), died with signs of bacteraemia including the presence of petechial haemorrhages in the mouth and gums and haemorrhages in the lung, spleen and intestines. The abdomen and anus were swollen with bloody-tinged mucus in the colon. Aeromonas hydrophila was recovered in dense virtually pure culture growth from the internal organs. Characterization of the isolates was by phenotyping and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (sequence homology of 99% with A. hydrophila) with outputs confirming Thalidomide the identity as A. hydrophila. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed virulence to frogs (Rana esculenta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The genus Aeromonas comprises Gram-negative, oxidase and catalase-positive, heterotrophic, nonhalophilic and facultative anaerobic bacilli, which are widely distributed in natural waters (Holmes et al., 1996). The group is often associated with aquatic animals, and several species are primary or opportunistic pathogens of invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans (Martin Carnahan & Joseph, 2005).