In contrast to rat, we found no evidence for this closed loop in

In contrast to rat, we found no evidence for this closed loop in mouse. There was no major input from the BLA to the MD and little overlap between medial prefrontal regions connected with both the BLA and MD. The common nodes in the frontal cortex, which displayed reciprocal connection with both the BLA and MD were the agranular insular cortex and the border zone of the cingulate and

secondary motor cortex. In addition, the BLA can indirectly affect the MD via the orbital cortex. We attribute the difference between our results and earlier rat studies to methodological problems rather than to genuine species PLX4032 difference. Our data demonstrate that the BLA and MD communicate via cortical sectors, the roles in fear-related behaviour of which have not been extensively studied. In general, our study provides the morphological framework for studies of murine fear-related behaviours. “
“Recently, several novel, potentially lethal and treatment-responsive syndromes that affect hippocampal

and cortical function have been shown to be associated with auto-antibodies against synaptic antigens, notably glutamate or GABA-B receptors. Patients with these auto-antibodies, sometimes associated with teratomas and other neoplasms, present with psychiatric symptoms, seizures, memory deficits and decreased levels of consciousness. These symptoms often improve dramatically selleck chemicals after immunotherapy or tumor resection. Here we review studies of the cellular and synaptic effects of these antibodies in hippocampal neurons in vitro and preliminary work in rodent models. Our work suggests that patient antibodies lead to rapid and reversible removal of neurotransmitter receptors from synaptic sites, leading to changes

in synaptic and circuit function that in turn are likely to lead to behavioral deficits. We also discuss several of the many questions raised by these and related disorders. Determining the mechanisms underlying these novel anti-neurotransmitter receptor encephalopathies will provide insights into the cellular and synaptic bases of the memory and cognitive deficits that are hallmarks Ibrutinib of these disorders, and potentially suggest avenues for therapeutic intervention. “
“Cortical circuitries are highly sensitive to experience during early life but this phase of heightened plasticity decreases with development. We recently demonstrated that fluoxetine reinstates a juvenile-like form of plasticity in the adult visual system. Here we explored cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of these plastic phenomena. Adult rats were intracortically treated with serotonin (5-HT) whereas long-term fluoxetine-treated rats were infused with the 5-HT1A-receptor antagonist WAY-100635, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) scavenger trkB-IgG or the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor U0126.

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